Vol 32, No 2 (2009)

Forum Pascasarjana

Table of Contents

Articles

Dewan Editor
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Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) becomes a public health concern in developed countries which associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) in human and Johne’s disease (JD) in ruminants.  Some researchers in Europe, USA, and Australia detected MAP in the dairy products and showed the relationship among MAP, CD, and JD.  Meanwhile Indonesia imported milk and milk products from those countries to cover national demand.  In the future it will be a potential problem to national dairy herd and human health.  The aim of this study is to detect MAP in the growing up milk formula.  Fifty samples from five established distributors were taken in Bogor.  Some diagnostic methods were used parallel in this study, namely Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), Herrold’s Egg Yolk enrichment with mycobactine-J (HEYM) and polymerase chain reaction method (PCR) with insertion sequence IS 900 and F 57 as primer.  Neither MAP grew up in MGIT and HEYM after 20 weeks of incubation period. No positive samples were found by conventional PCR using IS 900 and F57 either but 5 samples were detected positive by nested PCR F57.  Although there was no evidence of MAP grew from the samples in this study, the comprehensive and sustainable studies on MAP still should be carried out with more and varied samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP and to anticipate it in Indonesia.

 

Key words: mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, growing up milk formula, PCR

Widagdo Sri Nugroho, Mirnawati Sudarwanto, Denny Widaya Lukman, Surachmi Setyaningsih, Rochman Naim, Ewald Usleber
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This research to study relation between environment parameter, plankton abundance and primary productivity with abundance of tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry, calculates plankton predating rate speed by tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry and other larva and studies plankton population dynamics, tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry before, at the time and after peak season.  Result of research indicates that some environment parameters significant differs according to observation period and season.  Highest abundance of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva reaches to 29067, 7733 and 54400 ind/1000 m3. Highest grazing rate to population of phytoplankton and plankton (phytoplankton + zooplankton) found when predator consisted of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva with grazing rate up to 125 cells/liter/hour and 129 plankter /liter/hour respectively.  Highest predating rate to zooplankton population when predator consist of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and there is phytoplankton as their prey up to 12 individual/liter/hour.  The certain plankton species significant correlation and estimated as natural food of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry that is some types of diatom and crustaceae from zooplankton.  Plankton population dynamics especially controlled by predator by tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva, while influence of environment parameter is small relative. Abundance of each phytoplankton and zooplankton ranged from 583-28563 cells/liter and 22-3413 ind/liter.  Average abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton significant differs higher at peak season compare  before and after tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry season. Predator-prey relation between phytoplankton and zooplankton shows phase change which succession between phytoplankton controls to zooplankton phases with zooplankton control to phytoplankton.  Abundance of plankton influences abundance of population of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry especially after peak season.  There is concordance of time between peak abundance of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and other larva with peak abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

 

Key words : population dynamics, predating, predating rate, predator, prey, phytoplankton, zooplankton, tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry, other larva, Pinrang

Nur Asia Umar, Richardus F. Kaswadji, Ario Damar, Ismudi Muchsin, I Wayan Nurjaya
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Sherly G. Jocom, Eka Intan K. Putri, Himawan Hariyoga
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Rasidin Karo Karo Sitepu, Bonar M. Sinaga, Rina Oktaviani, Mangara Tambunan
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Indra G. Febryano, Didik Suharjito, Sudarsono Soedomo
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Residential solid waste is being a critical problem in many cities in clauding Jakarta.  Cummnity-based management is the most important strategy even when sophiticated treatment such as bio-energy or waste industrial park word be implemented soon, as every waste processing neds separated wastes.  Increasing the participation through community-based manajement is more effective than cange people’sperception and behavior on domestic wastes.  In some cates, to change community behavior in waste separition and recycling need more than ten years i.e. at Kampung Banjarsari, but with appropriate support system on sosial planning only took two years i.e. Kampung Rajawati.  The implementation constrain of this progammeis on replication or expandability of the progamme to implemented in another place.  There are also lack of government’s significantefforts to push and to supprots than action.  It’s true that some cummunities develop the some model, but without acceleration and exvandable progamme, the significance of that effort is very poor.  This study tried to ellaborate the model of system based ofnspatial analyses to determine resedential typology and found five resedential types i.e. high, middle-high, middle, middle-lower and lower level of resendential.  Quantitative analyses to determine typology of community participation found four types of cummnity participation i.e. moral-normative, moral-remunerayive, calculative-remuneraive and calculative-coercive.  Qualitative analyses had been ellaborated to determine authority or government policies typology.  Breaking down from these clssification, there strategies could develop, namely community participation strategy, infastructure development strategy and institutional manajement strategy.  Implementation of these models could accomodate the heterogeneity of communities and give positive impact on social acceptability.

 

Key words: social planning, community management, residential solid wastes

Nonon Saribanon, Endriatmo Soetarto, Surjono H. Sutjahjo, E. Gumbira Sa’id, Sumardjo .
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