Vol 32, No 1 (2009)

Forum Pascasarjana

Table of Contents

Articles

Forum Pascasarjana
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Antimicrobial activity of pliek u oil and pliek u crude extracts were evaluated against seven bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and one fungal strain (Candida albicans).  Pliek u oil has been used as cooking oil and medicinal of skin diseases, wound, fever, headache and stomache.  Pliek u has been consumed as spices and sambal, and also used for feed poultry.  These foods collected from home industry at Redeup village in Aceh Besar, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.  The hexane and ethanol extracts of pliek u were obtained by standard method.  The antimicrobial activity was detected using paper disc method and the concentration of crude extract was determined by  dilution method.  Among antimicrobials extracts tested, the ethanol crude extract (EEP) was most active against all microbial strains.  The ethanol crude extract obtained from pliek u previously extracted by hexane (EERH) was active toward bacterial strains and only hexane crude extract was active against C. albicans.  The results indicated that ethanol crude extract (EEP) showed antimicrobial activity at a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a Minimal Microbicidal Concentration (MMC) at 2.5-10 mg/ml and  10-20 mg/ml, respectively. EEP was still active at 100ºC, 121ºC for 15-60 minute, 28ºC (room storage), 10ºC (refrigerator temperature), both for 1-6 months and at pH from 1-11. The results of the research concluded that EEP showed significant antimicrobial activity.

 

Key words: pliek u, coconut fermentated, antimicrobial activity, toxicity test
Nurliana ., Mirnawati Sudarwanto, L.I. Sudirman, Anastasia Winny Sanjaya
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Re-circulating rice dryers suitable for large amount of loading capacity.  It generally comprises of two parts, the tempering section and a drying section, and the grains are dried in an intermittent way until the final moisture content of the grains can be achieved.  Wet grains are initially dried for about 11 minutes within the drying section of the dryer.  The grains then are conveyed to the tempering section where it will be stored for about 40 to 50 minutes.  At every passes, about less than 2%(wb) of the moisture content can be removed from the grains. The number of passes required to accomplish a drying process in a recirculation dryer depends on the initial moisture content and the amount of rough rice to be dried.  The drying and tempering duration can be adjusted by means of a mechanical valve.  The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of re-circulating dryers equipped with pneumatic conveyor instead of bucket elevator to reduce electricity cost and heated using a proper blend between kerosene and jatropha oil.  Several experimental runs had been conducted under a constant drying temperature of 60oC and was controlled by adjusting the rate of fuel consumption.  The experimental results showed that the drying efficiency was in the range of 22.2% to 31.1%, the specific energy consumption was between 3.475-4.785 MJ/kg H2O evaporated, fuel consumption at 0.95 to 1.15 (liters/hr) and the drying rate was 0.9%/hr.  The entire drying operation using 465 kg of rough rice required 10 hours of drying time with 74.3% of head yield.  Mathematical model used in this study also had indicated close agreement with experimental data.

 

Key words: re-circulating dryer, pneumatic conveyor, drying performance, tempering period, bio-kerosene blend
Totok Prasetyo, Kamaruddin Abdullah, Armansyah H. Tambunan, Leopold Nelwan, I Made K.D
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Cacao plant is one of the major commodity of plantation in South East Sulawesi, especially in Konawe regency.  Practices of land management implemented by the local cacao farmers in many cases are not in accordance to soil and water conservation principles until caused of soil degradation.  The research was aimed to investigate the alteration of soil physics properties on the local farmers cacao cropping land at different slope as related to canopy cover.  The research was conducted in Amosilu Village, Besulutu District, Konawe Regency, the Province of South East Sulawesi, from December 2006 to September 2007.  The experimental method with field study was applied in split plot design consisting of three factors, namely (i) slope consisting of two levels (10-15% and 40-45%) and (ii) age of the cacao plant consisting of two levels (5 to 7 months and 25 to 27 months) were used as main plots (P1 = 5 to 7 months and 10-15%; P2 = 25 to 27 months and 10-15%; P3 = 5 to 7 months and 40-45%; and P4 = 25 to 27 months and 40-45%), while (iii) vegetatif conservation treatment was used as sub plots consisting of three levels, i.e T1 = cacao with disc clearing, T2 = dry field rice and soybean rotation within cacao plant, T3 = T2 + Arachis pintoi as strip plant.  There was not interaction between both cacao plant and slope treatment with vegetative conservation treatment to soil physics properties, exception on aggregate stability index.  The result showed that vegetative conservation treatment (T1) that is cacao with disc clearing was best alternative because they implied the higher rate of total porosity (61,8%) and the lower rate of bulk density (1,013 g cm-3) as soon as the raising of aggregate stability index as well.

 

Key words: cacao, canopy cover, conservation, soil physics properties
Nurmi ., Oteng Haridjaja, Sitanala Arsyad, Sudirman Yahya
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Nur Aini, Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Tien R. Muchtadi, Nuri Andarwulan
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The aim of the research is to evaluate the effectiveness of micro fertigation system and application of cows fermented urine (uriferm) for chili (Capsicum annum sp.) Cultivation.  The micro fertigation system with 0.5 mm inside diameter micro-tubing is used to control the flow from outlets along lateral.  The lateral with 5/16 inch inside diameter is made of soft PVC hose.  The result of the research showed that the micro fertigation system is running well. Randomized block design with four replications are used for the field experiment.  There are four treatments i.e. conventional culture by watering can (A), uriferm fertigation (B), non uriferm fertigation (C), and Hartus formula fertigation (D).  The laboratory analysis showed that the properties of uriferm increase in composition compared to non uriferm and used successfully as nutrition.  The micro fertigation system showed better result compared to the watering can on variable observation of plant and root development of chili.  The field experiments showed that the micro fertigation system significantly reduced volume of water used by 49.5% and raised chili yield by 61.2% compared to watering can.  The uriferm fertigation (B) showed better result compared to other treatments on wet weight of chili and water productivity.  The total income from 390 m2 irrigated land with micro fertigation system was about Rp 2,961,700,00/season and  feasible to apply with B/C ratio =  1.51, IRR value = 27.49% and NPV = Rp 387,413.83 at discount rate 9% per annum.

 

Key words: micro fertigation system, uriferm, chili, water productivity, small plots
Naswir ., Soedodo Hardjoamidjojo, Nora H. Pandjaitan, Hidayat Pawitan
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Andrijanto H. Angi, I Wayan Teguh Wibawan, Sri Murtini
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Askar Jaya, Ernan Rustiadi, Isang Gonarsyah, Deddy S. Bratakusumah, Bambang Juanda
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Forum Pascasarjana
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