Vol 33, No 1 (2010)

Forum Pascasarjana

Table of Contents

Articles

Forum Pascasarjana
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The researh for study relationship between phytoplankton abundance and environment parameters and determining contribuion each environment parameters on phytoplankton abundance discrimination had been conducted in 2005 in bagan rambo fishing ground at coastal water Barru Regency, Makassar Strait.  Environment parameters and phytoplankton abundance data collection were conducted on May (6 stations), June, July, September, October and November (9 stations).  Spatio-temporal distribution of environment parameters probably ralate to fresh water loading to stations inshore.  Phytoplankton abundance found in this research ranged from 431 to 5438 cels/liter.  Phytoplankton population dominated by diatom i.e: Bacteriatrum, Biddulphia, Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Ditylum, Eucampia, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia, Skeletonema, Thalassionema, Thalassiosira, dan Thalassiothrix.  Regression analysis result show significantly positive linear correlation between phytoplankton abundance with temperature and phosphate concentration, but low correlation coefficient R = 0,4366 (R2 = 0,1906).  Discriminant analysis result show that high average of phytoplankton abundance occured when high temperature and nitrat concentration, and moderate salinity, pH and phosphate concentration.  Phosphate concentration have higher contribution on discriminating phytoplankton abundance.  The contribution of nitrate and silicat concentration and pH are low.

 

Key words: phytoplankton, phytoplankton abundance, diatom, discriminant analysis, environment parameters
Muh. Hatta, Richardus F Kaswadji, Mulia Purba, Daniel R. Monintja
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Evi Lisna, Bonar M. Sinaga, Sjafri Mangkuprawira, Hermanto Siregar
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The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to be the initiating factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis.  Curcuminoid, the metabolite of Zingiberaceae family such as temu mangga (Curcuma mangga), has been shown to reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. In this study, we examined the effect of curcuminoid extracted from temu mangga on copper ion-induced lipid peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in mice’s macrophages and Macaca nemestrina’s monocytes.  Analyses were done by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as malonaldehyde (MDA).  LDL were harvested and isolated from 5 adult female Macaca fascicularis  fed aterogenic diet for 3 months.  LDL oxidation by mice macrophage incubated for 4 hours were inhibited by curcuminoid at concentration of 8 ppm.  There was decreased 17% (P<0.01) in the concentration of MDA compared to control without curcuminoid (31.99B±0. vs 36.77A±0.9 nmol/mg protein LDL, respectively).  Inhibiton of LDL oxidation in M. nemestrina macrophage were highest by curcuminoid at 8 ppm for 4 hours and 6 hours incubation.  There was 14.8% and 23% inhibiton (P<0.01) (23.768 ± 0.095A vs 27.111B±0.972 and 23.37B±0.12 vs 30.87A±2.49 nmol/mg LDL protein, respectively).  These data suggest that curcuminoid of temu mangga were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in the cellular level, therefore offer protection against oxidation of LDL.

 

Key words: LDL, atherosclerosis, curcuminoid, Curcuma mangga
Trini i Susmiat, Sulistiyani ., Dondin Sajuthi, Latifah K. Darusman
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Werenfridus Taena, Ernan Rustiadi, Himawan Hariyoga
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Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Laut as wildlife game reserve, that are covered by mangrove forest and are potential region in supporting local and migratory bird life, are one of conservation area in North Sumatera Province.  Increasing population number of people surrounding the project area was also followed by the increasing of live needs Gading Beach, which is very susceptible with conversion and high exploitation.  The conflict interest requently occurs in case of converting land that caused impact to ecology and economy of properties, and indirectly affect to the decreasing of bird diversity.  The objectives of this research were to analyze the relationships between the structure and composition of tree species and the bird biodiversity.  The research was conducted from June to September 2007 in the Karang Gading Beach and Langkat Timur Laut Wildlife game reserve, North Sumatera Province.  The sampling area was selected four subhabitats consisting of (1) primary mangrove subhabitat, (2) Secondary mangrove subhabitat, (3) intensif embankment subhabitat, and (4) extensive embankment subhabitat.  A purposive sampling method was applied for mangrove vegetation, and IPA (indices ponctuels d’abundances) and CC (concentration counts) method were used for bird observe.  Results showed that there significant relationships between the structure and composition of tree species and the bird biodiversity in all subhabitats.  The correlation coefficient in primary mangrove subhabitat was higher than those of the other subhabitats.  The correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.92. 0.85, and 0.93 were for primary mangrove. Secondary mangrove, intensive embankment and extensive embankment subhabitat, respectively.  Hight variety of tree species in each subhabitat could increase the bird diversity.

 

Key words: structure and composition, mangrove, bird biodiversity
Adil ., Dedei Setiad, Jarwadi B. Hernowo
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The objectives of this research were; (1) to analyze production efficiency and profitability of smallholder rubber monoculture and smallholder rubber agroforestry systems, and (2) to find out the effects of policy distortions towards rubber production under smallholder monoculture and smallholder agroforestry. Smallholders are not only judged by yield per hectare; economic efficiency is not only a matter of returns to land and returns to labor but smallholders can adopt low input strategy, continue making profits at prices that would be economically viable. Such flexibility offers the possibility of efficient resource allocation in response to diversification of economic opportunities.  The policy analysis matrix (PAM) with the domestic resource cost (DRC) results under the baseline scenario indicated that the use of domestic resources in production of rubber was efficient and socially profitable under the two systems but more desirable under monoculture system given the current prices for physical inputs, outputs, technologies and policy transfer. However, even with sensitivity analysis of 10% increase in the price of rubber holding other factors constant does not make rubber agroforestry system more efficient than its counterpart and a 20% fall in price of rubber made rubber production under agroforestry system less efficient and undesirable.  All measures are compared to the alternative policy indicators currently used. Therefore, recommendations made from this study relate to the need for diversification into better practices that can sustain efficient rubber production under the agroforestry system, encouraging private sector participation and reducing disincentives to rubber production.

 

Key words: smallholder rubber agroforestry, economic efficiency, policy analysis matrix
A. Rodgers, Bonar M. Sinaga, Suseno Budidarsono
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Forum Pascasarjana
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