Teknik Pangkas Akar untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Bibit Melinjo Bermikoriza
Mycorrhizal symbiosis is the result of mutualistic interactions between plants and fungi. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) naturally associate with ectomycorrhizal Scleroderma sinnamariense and Scleroderma sp. fungi. Artificial inoculation can be applied to young seedlings (1-2 months old), before the roots contain woody material. The purpose of this study was to apply the root pruning techniques to improve gnetum mycorrhizal seedlings production. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using 7 months old seedlings. The treatments consisted of 3 root pruning levels (0, 30, and 50%) and ectomycorrhizal fungi inoculum (control, mycorrhizal seedlings, and soil inoculum). Observations were carried out for 4 months to the seedling growth and root colonization by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Height, diameter, and biomass of melinjo seedlings in all treatments were not significantly different. Thus, root pruning activities do not affect the growth of seedlings. Artificial inoculation produce mycorrhizal seedlings, whereas controls were uninfected. Root pruning increased number of root branching. Root pruning at level 50% increased mycorrhizal seedlings production, but the percentage of root colonization was not significantly difefernt at all pruning levels.
Altland J. 2007. Root pruning: A Touchy Subject. USA: North Willamett Research and Extension Center Oregon State University (US).
Bath B, Kristensen HL, Thorup-Kristensen K. 2009. Root pruning reduces root competition and increases crop growth in a living mulch cropping system. In: International Symposium Root Research and Applications. RootRAP, 2009 Sep 2–4, Boku – Vienna, Austria. 1-2.
Bechem EET, Alexander IJ. 2009. Inoculum production and inoculation of Gnetum africanum rooted cuttings using a range of mycorrhizal fungi. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 3(3):578-586.
Bechem EET, Alexander IJ. 2012. Mycorrhiza status of Gnetum spp. in Cameroon: evaluating diversity with a view to ameliorating domestication efforts. Mycorrhiza. 22(2): 99-108. doi: 10.1007/s00572-011-0384-0
Hayati N. 2013. Karakterisasi morfologi dan anatomi jamur ektomikorhiza scleroderma spp. pada tanaman melinjo (gnetum gnemon l.) di Kabupaten Pacitan. Bioma. 2(1): 32-48.
Heinonsalo J, Sen R. 2007. Scots pine ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum potential and dynamics in podzol-specific humus, eluvial and illuvial horizons one and four growth seasons after forest clear-cut logging. Can J For Res. 37: 404–414. doi:10.1139/X06-212
Hendricks JJ, Mitchell RJ, Kuehn KA, Pecot SD, Sims SE. 2006. Measuring external mycelia production of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field: the soil matrix matters. New Phytologist. 171: 179–186. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01742.x
Jones MD, Smith SE. 2004. Exploring functional definitions of mycorrhizas: Are mycorrhizas always mutualisms? Can J Bot. 82: 1089–1109. doi: 10.1139/B04-110
Kevin JB, Daniel MD, Suzanne WS, Sheri AM, Annette MK. 2010. Architecture of the wood-wide web: Rhizopogon spp. genets link multiple Douglas-fir cohorts. New Phytologist. 185: 543–553. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009. 03069.x
Krüger A, Berghöfer TP, Frettinger P, Herrmann S, Buscot F, Oelmüller R. 2004. Identification of premycorrhiza-related plant genes in the association between Quercus robur and Piloderma croceum. New Phytologist 163: 149-157. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01091.x
Lee SS, Patahayah M, Chong WS, Lapeyrie F. 2008. Successful ectomycorrhizal inoculation of two dipterocarp species with a locally isolated fungus in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 20(4): 237–247.
Meilleur G. 2007. Root pruning: severing subterranean stranglers. Tree Care Indust. 7:8-13.
Nehls U, Grunze N, Willmann M, Reich M, Kuster H. 2007. Sugar for my honey: Carbohydrate partitioning in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Phytochem. 68:82-91.
Niemi K, Häggman H, Sarjala T. 2002. Effects of exogenous diamines on the interaction between ectomycorrhizal fungi and adventitious root formation in Scots pine in vitro. Tree Physiol. 22:373–381.
Niemi K, Kevers C, Ha¨ggman H. 2005a. Lignosulfonate promotes the interaction between Scots pine and an ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius in vitro. Plant and Soil. 271: 243–249. DOI 10S.1007/s11104-004-2615-z
Niemi K, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Tegelberg R, Häggman H. 2005b. Light sources with different spectra affect root and mycorrhiza formation in Scots Pine in vitro. Tree Physiology. 25:123–128.
Niemi K, Sutela S, Ha¨ggman H, Scagel C, Vuosku J, Jokela A, Sarjala T. 2006. Changes in polyamine content and localization of Pinus sylvestris ADC and Suillus variegatus ODC mRNA transcripts during the formation of mycorrhizal interaction in an in vitro cultivation system. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57(11): 2795–2804. DOI:10.1093/jxb/erl049
Tripepi B. 2009. Pruning roots during plant production. Idaho Horticulture Expo. 2009 Jan 22. Moscow (US): Horticultural Sciences Division, University of Idaho Moscow.
Valdes M, Pereda V, Ramírez P, Valenzuela R, Pineda RM. 2009. The ectomycorrhizal community in a Pinus oaxacana forest under different silvicultural treatments. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 21(2): 88–97.
Warren JM, Brooks JR, Meinzer FC, Eberhart JL. 2008. Hydraulic redistribution of water from Pinus ponderosa trees to seedlings: evidence for an ectomycorrhizal pathway. New Phytologist. 178: 382–394. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02377.x
Wulandari AS. 2002. Beberapa gatra biologi biologi ektomikoriza Scleroderma pada melinjo [disertasi]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).