Upaya Penghilangan Rasa Pahit Tepung Biji Kelor (Moringa oleifera) dan Aplikasinya untuk Pangan Fungsional
Moringa oleifera is a plant that has many benefits in each part. Moringa seeds have high nutrient content but they have not been used as food ingredients because it contains cyanigenic glycoside and a bitter taste. This study aims to obtain the best method in eliminating the bitter taste and cyanide of moringa seeds, analyzing its proximate nutritional levels and antioxidant capacity, and the level of acceptance when it’s applied to cookie products. This study used different types of soaking solution (water, 3.5% NaCl, 1N CH3COOH solution, and 0.5% NaHCO3) and boiling temperature (70°C, boiling water temperature (± 97°C), and pressure boiling (±115°C)). Flour with NaHCO3 immersion treatment continued by pressurized boiling for 35 minutes was chosen to be the best flour because it had the lowest cyanide content, reduced bitter taste, and the highest FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) values (33.40±1.22 mg/kg; 3.40±1.24 mg/kg; and 58.70±2.67 mg AEAC/g) compared with untreated moringa seed flour (152.15±0.95 mg/kg ;10.29±2.92 mg/kg; and 17.43±1.22 mg AEAC/g). The selected flour was used as a substitute for flour (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) in cookies making. Sensory hedonic rating analysis on cookies used 60 untrained panelists. Substitution up to 30% overall did not have a significant difference in acceptance compared to control (0%) except for color attribute.
Keywords: bitter, cyanide, Moringa oleifera, functional food, moringa seed flour
Abou-Zaid FOF, Ibraheem AA. 2015. Using of some different acids in de-bittering of green olives. Journal of Food and Dairy Science. 6(5): 393404. https://doi.org/10.21608/jfds.2015.48850.
Adedayo BC, Oboh G, Akindahusi AA. 2010. Changes in the total phenol content and antioxidant properties of pepperfruit (Dennettia tripetala) with ripening. African Journal of Food Science. 4(6): 403409.
[AOAC] Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Analytical Chemist. Arlington: The Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Inc.
[BSN] Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2011. Air dan air limbah - Bagian 77: Cara uji sianida (CN‾) secara spektrofotometri. SNI 6989.77:2011.
Compaore WR, Nikiema PA, Bassole HIN, Savadogo A, Mouecoucou J, Hounhouigan DJ, Traore SA. 2011. Chemical composition and antioxidative properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata commonly used in food fortification in Burkina Faso. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3(1): 6472.
[EFSA] European Food Safety Authority. 2019. Evaluation of the health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in foods other than raw apricot kernels. European Food Safety Authority Journal. 17(4): 5662.
Ertas N, Bilgicli N. 2014. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 51(11): 33483354. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0837-2.
Foidl N, Makkar HPS, Becker K. 2001. The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In: What development potential for Moringa products?. Dar Es-Salaam, Tanzania, October 20th - November 2nd 2001.
[FSANZ] Food Standards Australia New Zealand. 2004. Cyanogenic Glycosides In Cassava And Bamboo Shoots: A Human Health Risk Assessment. Technical Report Series No. 28. [internet]. [diunduh pada 3 Februari 2020]. Tersedia pada: https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/ publications/documents/28_Cyanogenic_glycosides.pdf.
Herpandi, Widiastuti I, Wulandari, Sari CA. 2019. Efektivitas natrium bikarbonat (NaHCO3) terhadap karakteristik fisikokimia dan sensori keripik tulang ikan putak (Notopterus notopterus). Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia. 22(2): 263272. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v22i2. 27676.
Hutami FD, Harijono. 2014. Pengaruh penggantian larutan dan konsentrasi NaHCO3 terhadap penurunan kadar sianida pada pengolahan tepung ubi kayu. Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri. 2(4): 220230.
Ijarotimi OS, Adeoti OA, Ariyo O. 2013. Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristic of raw, germinated and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour. Food Science and Nutrition. 1(6): 452463. https:// doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.70.
Indriasari Y, Wignyanto, Kumalaningsih S. 2016. Effect of blanching on saponins and nutritional content of moringa leaves extract. Journal of Food Research. 5(3): 5560. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v5n3p55.
Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat. 2017. Peraturan Bupati Nomor 80 Tahun 2017 tentang Gerakan Menanam dan Melestarikan Kelor di Kabupaten Sumbawa Barat.
Kumar V, Chavan SM, Jain SK, Salvi BL, Jain NK, Kumar A, Meena KK. 2019. Peeling of tough skinned fruits and vegetables: A review. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 7(2): 18251829.
Leone A, Spada A, Battezzati A, Schiraldi A, Aristil J, Bertoli S. 2016. Moringa oleifera seeds and oil: characteristics and uses for human health. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17: 21412155. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122141.
Li Y, Wills RBH, Golding JB. 2015. Sodium chloride, a cost effective partial replacement of calcium ascorbate and ascorbic acid to inhibit surface browning on fresh-cut apple slices. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 64(1): 503507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.05.010.
Maryam ST, Baits M, Nadia A. 2016. Pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak etanol daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) menggunakan metode FRAP. Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia. 2(2): 115118. https://doi.org/10.33096/jffi.v2i2.181.
Meilgaard M, Civille GV, Carr BT. 2004. Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition. Florida (US): CRC Press LLC.
Nwokoro O, Anya FO. 2011. Linamarase enzyme from Lactobacillus delbrueckii NRRL B-763: purification and some properties of a β-Glucosidase. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society. 55(4): 246250.
Ogunsina BS, Radha C, Indrani D. 2015. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 62(2): 185194. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2010. 526928.
Putranto AW, Argo BD, Komar N. 2013. Pengaruh perendaman natrium bikarbonat (NaHCO3) dan suhu penggorengan terhadap nilai kekerasan keripik kimpul (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian. 14(2): 105114.
Qin P, Wu L, Yao Y, Ren G. 2013. Changes in phytochemical compositions, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities during the processing of tartary buckwheat tea. Food Research International. 50: 562567. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.03.028.
Rashima SR, Maizura M, Uthumporn U.2017a. Effects of debittering treatments on the physical properties and antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd extracts. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 13(6): 253261. https://doi.org/10.19026/ ajfst.13.5162.
Rashima SR, Maizura M, Kang WM, Fazilah A, Tan LX. 2017b. Influence of sodium chloride treatment and polysaccharides as debittering agent on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 54(1): 228235. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2454-y.
Reis SA, Conceiao LL, Peluzio MCG. 2019. Intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer: changes in the intestinal microenvironment and their relation to the disease. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 68(10):1391–1407.
Rizzo G, Baroni L. 2018. Soy, Soy Foods and Their Role in Vegetarian Diets. Nutrients. 10(1): 43. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010043.
Santos-Sanchez NF, Salas-Coronado R, Villanueva-Canongo C, Hernandez-Carlos B. 2019. Antioxidant Compounds and Their Antioxidant Mechanism. [internet]. [diunduh pada 3 Februari 2020]. Tersedia pada: https://www.intechopen.com/books/anti oxidants/antioxidant-compounds-and-their-antioxidant-mechanism.
Winarno FG. 2004. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. Jakarta (ID) : Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Wood R, Kubena K, O'Brien B, Tseng S, Martin G. 1993. Effect of butter, mono-and polysaturated fatty acid-enriched butter, trans fatty acid margarine, and zero trans fatty acid margarine on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healty men. Journal of Lipid Research. 34(1): 11.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).