Increasing the Quality of Agricultural and Plantation Residues using Combination of Fiber Cracking Technology and Urea for Ruminant Feeds

S. P. Dewi, M. Ridla, E. B. Laconi, A. Jayanegara


This experiment aimed to evaluate the decrease of the fiber fraction of some agricultural and plantation residues after being treated with Fiber Cracking Technology (FCT) and urea. The residues included rice straw, oil palm frond (OPF), oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), cocoa pod and coffee husk. They were added with 5% urea and incubated in FCT at temperature 135oC and pressure 2.3 atm for 2.5 h. The experimental treatments were arranged as a factorial design 5 × 2, in which the first factor was various agricultural and plantation residues (rice straw, OPF, OPEFB, cocoa pod and coffee husk) and the second factor was FCT application (untreated and treated with FCT + 5% urea), performed in 4 replicates. All treatments were subjected to Van Soest analysis and in vitro digestibility test. The decrease of fiber fraction was confirmed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. Results showed that FCT + 5% urea treatment decreased NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents of all samples (P<0.05), and increased IVDMD and IVOMD in comparison to untreated samples (P<0.05). However, the treatment did not alter in vitro methane gas production and VFA profiles of the samples. Analyses using SEM, XRD and FTIR revealed that FCT + 5% urea treatment demolished cell wall component, decreased crystallinity index and cleaved fiber bonds. It was concluded that combination between FCT and urea 5% effectively enhances the quality of some fibrous feed materials.


fiber cracking; urea; SEM; XRD; FTIR

Full Text:



Abdul, P. M., J. M. Jahim, S. Harun, M. Markom, N. A. Lutpi, O. Hassan, V. Balan, B. E. Dale, & M. T. Mohd Nor. 2016. Effects of changes in chemical and structural characteristic of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre on enzymatic saccharification and fermentability for biohydrogen. Bioresour. Technol. 211: 200-208.

Adapa, P. K., L. G. Tabil, G. J. Schoenau, T. Canam, & T. Dumonceaux. 2011. Quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic components of untreated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. B1: 177-188.

Agbor, V. B., N. Cicek, R. Sparling, A. Berlin, & D. B. Levin. 2011. Biomass pretreatment: Fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol. Adv. 29: 675-685.

Chaturvedi, V., & P. Verma. 2013. An overview of key pretreatment processes employed for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and value added products. Biotech. 3: 415-431.

El Abed, S., S. Koraichi, H. Latrache, & F. Hamadi. 2012. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Environmental SEM: Suitable Tools for Study of Adhesion Stage and Biofilm Formation, in: Kazmiruk, V. (Ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy. InTech.

Fan, M., D. Dai, & B. Huang. 2012. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Natural Fibres, in: Salih, S. (Ed.), Fourier Transform - Materials Analysis. InTech.

Fatah, I., H. Khalil, M. Hossain, A. Aziz, Y. Davoudpour, R. Dungani, & A. Bhat. 2014. Exploration of a chemo-mechanical technique for the Isolation of nanofibrillated cellulosic fiber from oil palm empty fruit bunch as a reinforcing agent in composites materials. Polymers. 6: 2611-2624.

Golding, C. G., L. L. Lamboo, D. R. Beniac, & T. F. Booth. 2016. The scanning electron microscope in microbiology and diagnosis of infectious disease. Sci. Rep. 6: 26516.

Guo, Y., & P. Wu. 2008. Investigation of the hydrogen-bond structure of cellulose diacetate by two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. Biopolymers 74: 509-513.

Harun, S., V. Balan, M. S. Takriff, O. Hassan, J. Jahim, & B. E. Dale. 2013. Performance of AFEXTM pretreated rice straw as source of fermentable sugars: The influence of particle size. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 6: 40.

Hildebrandt, N. C., P. Piltonen, J. -P. Valkama, & M. Illikainen. 2017. Self-reinforcing composites from commercial chemical pulps via partial dissolution with NaOH/urea. Ind. Crops Prod. 109: 79-84.

Itoh, H., Y. Terashima, & A. Hayashizaki. 1981. Ammoniated rice straw and rice hulls and rumen microbial degradation investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 52 (9): 671-679.

Jayanegara, A., N. F. Ardhisty, S. P. Dewi, Antonius, R. Ridwan, E. B. Laconi, Nahrowi, & M. Ridla. 2018. Enhancing nutritional quality of oil palm empty fruit bunch by using Fiber Cracking Technology. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. (under review).

Jayanegara, A., R. S. K. Ayinda, & E. B. Laconi. 2017. Urea treatment of rice straw at elevated temperature and pressure: Effects on fiber content, rumen fermentation and digestibility. J. Indonesian Trop. Anim. Agric. 42: 81-87.

Jayanegara, A., S. P. Dewi, N. Laylli, E. B. Laconi, Nahrowi, & M. Ridla. 2016. Determination of cell wall protein from selected feedstuffs and its relationship with ruminal protein digestibility in vitro. Med. Pet. 39: 134-140.

Jayanegara, A., H. P. S. Makkar, & K. Becker. 2015. Addition of purified tannin sources and polyethylene glycol treatment on methane emission and rumen fermentation in vitro. Med. Pet. 38: 57-63.

Jayanegara, A., & E. Palupi. 2010. Condensed tannin effects on nitrogen digestion in ruminants: A meta-analysis from in vitro and in vivo studies. Med. Pet. 33: 176-181.

Jin, D., S. G. Zhao, N. Zheng, D. P. Bu, Y. Beckers, & J. Q. Wang. 2018. Urea nitrogen induces changes in rumen microbial and host metabolic profiles in dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 210: 104-110.

Laconi, E. B., & A. Jayanegara. 2015. Improving nutritional quality of cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) through chemical and biological treatments for ruminant feeding: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28: 343-350.

Lau, M. J., M. W. Lau, C. Gunawan, & B. E. Dale. 2010. Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 162: 1847-1857.

Liu, Y., T. Hu, Z. Wu, G. Zeng, D. Huang, Y. Shen, X. He, M. Lai, & Y. He. 2014. Study on biodegradation process of lignin by FTIR and DSC. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21: 14004-14013.

Mishra, A., H. Patil, & G. Jain. 2014. XRD, LPF and FTIR investigation of Mn-Bi alloy. J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 534 012022.

Mittal, A., R. Katahira, M. E. Himmel, & D. K. Johnson. 2011. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 4: 41.

Moss, A. R., J. -P. Jouany, & J. Newbold. 2000. Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Ann. Zootech. 49: 231-253.

Octavia, S., T. H. Soerawidjaja, R. Purwadi, & I. D. G. A. Putrawan. 2017. The advantages of soaking with aqueous ammonia pre-treatment process of oil palm empty fruit bunches. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Tech. 7(3): 865-870.

Patra, A., T. Park, M. Kim, & Z. Yu. 2017. Rumen methanogens and mitigation of methane emission by anti-methanogenic compounds and substances. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8.

Schwab, C. G., & G. A. Broderick. 2017. A 100-Year Review: Protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100: 10094-10112.

Shi, Z., Q. Yang, S. Kuga, & Y. Matsumoto. 2015. Dissolution of wood pulp in aqueous NaOH/urea solution via dilute acid pretreatment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63: 6113-6119.

Theodorou, M. K., B. A. Williams, M. S. Dhanoa, A. B. McAllan, & J. France. 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48: 185-197.

Thomsen, S. T., J. E. G. Londo-o, J. E. Schmidt, & Z. Kádár. 2014. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for ethanol production of West African biomass. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 75: 2589-2601.

Tsabitah, S., A. A. Omar, & L. Ismail. 2014. Chemical pretreatment comparison for oil palm empty fruit bunch: A review. Appl. Mech. Mater. 625: 851-855.

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, & B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597.

Van Soest, P. J. 2006. Review: Rice straw, the role of silica and treatments to improve the quality. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 130: 137-171.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Tropical Animal Science Journal

Editorial Office

Tropical Animal Science Journal

Faculty of Animal Science Building, Bogor Agricultural University
Jln Agatis, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Phone/Fax.: +62-251-8421692
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.