Status Populasi Satwa Primata di Taman Nasional Gunung Palung dan Daerah Penyangga, Kalimantan Barat

Didik Prasetyo, Jito Sugardjito

Abstract


Abstrak. Enam belas lokasi yang berbeda telah disurvei di Taman Nasional Gunung Palung dan sekitarnya dengan luas tertutup total hampir 45.000 ha. Indikasi ancaman terhadap habitat primata juga diteliti pada setiap lokasi yang disurvei. Telah ditemukan bahwa di daerah di mana pengawasan hutan secara intensif dilaksanakan, kepadatan primata terutama lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan daerah yang tidak ada patroli reguler. Kepadatan tertinggi (3,7 individual/km2) orangutan ditemukan di Sungai Bayas, bagian dari Taman Nasional Gunung Palung, sedangkan kepadatan tinggi berikutnya (2,3 individual/km2) ditemukan di Lubuk Kuali, bagian dari masyarakat hutan. Spesies primata lain yang ditemukan selama survei ini adalah monyet ekor panjang, langurs, owa, dan monyet belalai. Spesies ini kebanyakan terjadi di dalam kawasan konservasi. Analisis ancaman menunjukkan bahwa kepadatan primata relatif lebih baik di kawasan konservasi dan hutan masyarakat bukan di hutan lindung. Meskipun status situs sebagai hutan lindung, tidak ada unit manajemen yang ada di daerah tersebut. Oleh karena itu, kegiatan ilegal banyak terjadi yang menyebabkan penurunan populasi primata. Kegiatan ilegal yang paling sering ditemui adalah penebangan diikuti oleh konversi hutan untuk berburu dan tanaman pertanian atau tanaman.

Abstract. Sixteen different locations have been surveyed in Gunung Palung National Park and their surroundings with a total covered area of nearly 45.000 ha. In addition, the threats to the primate habitats have also been assessed, particularly the threats to each surveyed site. It has been found that in the areas where forest patrols were intensively implemented, the primate density was particularly higher in comparison to the areas where no regular patrols existed. The highest density (3,7 individual/km2) of orangutans has been found in Sungai Bayas, part of Gunung Palung National Park, whereas the next high density (2,3 individual/km2) was found in Lubuk Kuali, part of the community forest. The other primate species encountered during the survey were longtailed macaques, langurs, gibbons, and proboscis monkeys. These species mostly occur inside the conservation area. An analysis of threats showed that the density of primates was relatively better in the conservation area and community forests rather than in the protection forests. Despite the status of the sites as protection forest, no management unit exist in the area and therefore, many illegal activities occurred, leading to reduction of the primate population. The most frequent illegal activities encountered were logging followed by hunting and forest conversion for agricultural plants or crops.

Key words: primates, orangutan, density, Gunung Palung National Park, buffer zone


Full Text:

PDF