Vol 22, No 2 (2011)

Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan

Table of Contents



[Optimization of Corn Noodle Extrusion Using Response Surface Methodology]

Tjahja Muhandri1)*, Adil Basuki Ahza1), Rizal Syarief1), dan Sutrisno2)

1)    Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

2)    Departemen Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor


Diterima 20 September 2010 / Disetujui 30 September 2011



Cooking loss and elongation are primary noodle quality parameters that depend on microstructure of the noodle. The noodle microstructure is strongly influenced by degree of gelatinization, moisture content, and shear force experienced by the dough. These parameters are controlled by temperature and screw speed of the extruder. The objective of this research was to optimize three processing variables i.e., corn flour moisture (70, 75, 80% dry basis), extruder temperature (80, 85, 90°C), and screw speed (110, 120, 130 rpm). Corn noodles were processed using Scientific Laboratory Single Screw Extruder type LE25-30/C. Optimizations Using Response Surface Methodology were based on four parameters, i.e., hardness, stickiness, elongation, and cooking loss characteristics .Results showed that the optimum processing condition was obtained at moisture of 70% (dry basis), extruder temperature 90°C, and screw speed 130 rpm. Under this condition, corn noodles has hardness of 3039.79 gf, stickiness of -116.2 gf, elongation of 318.68%, and cooking loss of 4.56%.


Key words: corn noodle, optimization proses, response surface methodology

Tjahja Muhandri
Budi Santoso
RETENSI VANILIN DAN PERUBAHAN WARNA EKSTRAK PEKAT VANILI SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Vanillin Retention and Color Changes of Concentrated Vanilla Extract During Storage] Mira Sofyaningsih1)*, Sugiyono2), dan Dwi Setyaningsih3) 1) Fakultas Ilmu-ilmu Kesehatan Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka 2) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor 3) Departemen Teknologi Industri Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor   Diterima 25 November 2009 / Disetujui 10 Oktober 2011 ABSTRACT   The purpose of this research was to observe vanillin retention and color changes during storage of concentrated  vanilla extract at the low temperature (10°C), room temperature (30°C), and high temperature (55°C) for 49 days. The methodology of this research consisted of vanilla curing process, vanilla extraction, evaporation of vanilla extract, formulation of concentrated vanilla extract, and measuring the vanillin retention and color change.The best products of concentrated vanilla extract  were made with formula containing 10 ml vanilla extract, 10 ml high fructose syrup (HFS) 55% and 3 ml of carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) solution 1% and that made with formula containing 10 ml vanilla extract, 15 ml glucose syrup 75°Brix and 3 ml of CMC solution 1%. The vanillin retention of both formulas had a trend to descrease. The pattern of vanillin retention and color change during storage of both formulas followed linear equations.Thetemperature and period of storage significantly affected the color of concentrated vanilla extract. Both formulas did not show any differences in vanillin retention and color during storage at refrigerator and room temperature.   Key words: vanillin, retention, concentrated vanilla extract
Mira Sofyaningsih, Dr Sugiyono, Dwi Setyaningsih


[Synthesis of Cross-Linked Sago Starch Phosphate with the Highest Degree of Substitution of Phosphate Under Acidic Condition]

Jorion Romengga*, Tun Tedja Irawadi, Retno Djulaika, Muntamah, dan Ahmad Zakaria

Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Departemen Kimia, Institut Pertanian Bogor


Diterima 23 Februari 2011 / Disetujui 10 Oktober 2011



Cross-linked sago starch phosphate (SgP) with high phosphorus contents was successfully synthesized by reacting sago with a mixture of primary and secondary sodium phosphates under acidic condition. The experimental variables investigated include pH, temperature, reaction time, and mixture rate. The physicochemical properties evaluated were moisture, swelling power, water binding capacity, transmittance (%T) and percent amylose (%Am), while the pasting properties examined were pasting time, pasting temperature, viscosity at peak, final, and setback. The granule structure was observed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the maximum degree of phosphate substitution was obtained at pH of 6.50, 40°C, 20 minutes of reaction time and 300 rpm of mixing rate. The physicochemical (%T and %Am) and pasting (viscosity at peak, final, and setback) properties of SgP were significantly different (P<0.01) from Sg. Structure of SgP was characterized by FT-IR and the results indicated a new absorption peak at 2362.87 cm-1 which was characterized as the phospho-diester (RO-PO3-R’) stretching vibration. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1242.05 and 989.79 cm-1 which were characterized as the P=O and C-O-P vibration, respectively. Sago granules were substantially altered after cross-linking.


Key words: sago, modified starch, cross-linked, degree of substitution, Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4

Jorion Romengga, Tun Tedja Irawadi, Retno Djulaika, . Muntamah, Ahmad Zakaria


[Nutritional Evaluation of Pre-cooked “Tanduk” and “Raja Nangka” Plantain flour]

Rosida* dan Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida

Departemen Teknologi Pangan Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional ”Veteran” Jawa Timur


Diterima 18 Januari 2010 / Disetujui 10 Oktober 2011



      This research dealt with the nutritional evaluation of pre-cooked plantain flour in experimental Wistar rats to evaluate physical and chemical properties of the digesta of rats as well as glucose and cholesterol content of their blood. Pre-cooked plantain flour was made of 2 types of plantain, Tanduk plantain (Musa corniculata) and Raja Nangka plantain (Musa paradisiacalLinn) which have been heated and cooled under 3 conditions (boiling-cooling, steaming-cooling, and baking-cooling, prior to drying and milling. It was found that both pre-cooked plantain flours have high resistant starch content (6.38-11.40%). Nutritional evaluation of rats for 20 days treatment revealed that pre-cooked plantain flour diets have no effect on the volume, weight, water content, and pH of the digesta and glucose content of the blood serum. But these diets increase the concentration of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid of the digesta and decrease cholesterol content of the blood serum, especially Tanduk plantain pre-cooked flour made from Tanduk plantain after boiling and cooling, hence it has good effects on the colonic microbiota.


Key words: pre-cooked flour, resistant starch, Tanduk plantain, Raja Nangka plantain

. Rosida, Dedin Finatsiyatull Rosida
KARAKTERISASI SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA DAN FUNGSIONAL ISOLAT PROTEIN BIJI KECIPIR (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) [Characterization of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Winged-Bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) Protein Isolate] Slamet Budijanto1,2)*, Azis Boing Sitanggang1,2) dan Wita Murdiati1) 1) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor 2) Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor   Diterima 04 Juni 2010 / Disetujui 19 Oktober 2011 ABSTRACT   Winged-bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L.) has similar protein concentration to soybean. Higher productivity of winged-bean as compared to soybean and ground nut makes it feasible to develop this legume as a natural source of vegetable protein. Protein isolate was made by isolating protein from defatted winged-bean flour employing its isoelectric point, and several stages of centrifugation. The protein content of winged-bean protein isolate was 83.87% (db). Analysis of physicochemical properties of winged-bean protein isolate, suggested that the bulk density was 0.60 g/ml with water and oil absorption capacity of 2.61 g H2O/g solid; 1.60 ml oil/g solid, respectively. Moreover, this protein isolate had emulsion capacity of 70.5%; foam capacity of 89.5% and formed gel at concentration of 15%. Data on amino acids composition indicated that glutamic acid was the highest concentration (6.37%), whereas tryptophan was the lowest one (0.37%). Several essential amino acids, such as leucine dan lysine, were found in winged-bean protein isolate at a concentration of 3.2% and 2.8%, respectively, calculated from the total amino acid.   Key words: winged-bean, protein isolate, physicochemical, amino acids
Slamet Budijanto, Azis Boing Sitanggang, Wita Murdiati
Erliza Noor, Liesbetini Hartoto


[Low Temperature Solvent Crystallizationin Tocotrienol Containing Vitamin E Rich Fraction Preparation from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate]

Kgs Ahmadi1)*, dan Teti Estiasih2)

1) Program Studi Teknologi Industri Pertanian – Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Jl. Telaga Warna – Tlogomas - Malang

2) Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan – Universitas Brawijaya Jl. Veteran – Malang


Diterima 05 November 2010 / Disetujui 10 Oktober 2011



Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is a by-product of physical refining of CPO (Crude Palm Oil) in deodorization process. PFAD is a potential source of natural vitamin E, that besides tocopherol, also contains tocotrienol. Both have functions as antioxidant and vitamin. This research studied a method for obtaining vitamin E rich fraction that contained tocotrienol by low temperature hexane solvent crystallization. The elucidation factors were ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD(5:1, 6:1, and 7:1) and crystallization temperature (-20, -10, and 0°C). The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. The research showed that PFAD contains high tocotrienol. Low temperature solvent crystallization of unsaponifiable fraction gave 33.88% increase ofvitamin E concentration compared to control. Temperature and ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction affected enrichment of vitamin E in PFAD. Later, saponification increased vitamin E content in unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD. Enrichment of tocopherol was higher than that of tocotrienol, supposed as a result of improper separation process in crystallization stage. Modulation of Vitamin E concentration during saponification of PFAD increased antioxidant activity compared to unsaponifiable fraction. The best result was achieved at ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of 6:1 and crystallization temperature of -10°C.


Key words: low temperature, solvent crystallization, vitamin E, tocotrienol, palm fatty acid distillate


Kgs Ahmadi, Teti Estiasih


[Characteristics of Chemical Content and Digestibility of Brown Sorghum Tempeh]

Erni Sofia Murtini*, Arfat Gati Radite dan Aji Sutrisno

Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya. Jl veteran – Malang 65145


Diterima 04 Maret 2010 / Disetujui 10 November 2011



Brown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is rarely used for food product because its protein has lower digestibility compared to other cereals. One factor affecting lower sorghum protein digestibility is anti nutritional effect from tannin and phytic acid. Some processing methods of sorghum have successfully increased protein digestibility, one of them is tempeh fermentation. The aims of this research were to degrade anti nutritional compounds and to increase in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain using tempeh fermentation. This research was performed in two steps; preparation of sorghum grain and production of sorghum tempeh. Proximate contents, anti nutritional compounds, and in vitro protein digestibility were tested. The test was applied to each of sorghum tempeh samples every 12 hour until 72 hours of total incubation time. The result of study showed that fermentation process decreased anti nutritional factors such as tannin and phytic acid, and increased in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain. The reduction of anti nutritions and increase of in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain were time-dependent in the fermentation process. The highest in vitro protein digestibility (79.13 %) was observed from 72 hour-fermented sorghum.


Key words: sorghum, tempeh, in vitro protein digestibility, antinutritional compound

Erni D.Sofia Murtini, Aji Sutrisno, Arfat Gati Radite
METABOLISME PREBIOTIK OLEH KANDIDAT PROBIOTIK ISOLAT ASI SEBAGAI DASAR PENGEMBANGAN PRODUK SINBIOTIK [Prebiotics Metabolism by Probiotics Candidates Isolated from Breast Milk as a Basis for Development of Sinbiotics Product] Lilis Nuraida1,2)*, Nur Rita Mardiana2), Didah Nur Faridah1,2), dan Hana1) 1) South East Asian Food and Agriculture Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Institut Pertanian Bogor 2) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertaian Bogor   Diterima 05 Juli 2011 / Disetujui 22 November 2011   ABSTRACT   Five Lactobacillus strains and two Pediococcus strains isolated from breast milk were evaluated for their ability to metabolite oligosaccharide known as prebiotics, i. e. inulin, FOS, GOS, FOS:GOS (1:9), and inulin:GOS (1:9). The result shows that all Lactobacillus and Pediococcus strains were able to grow in medium with prebiotics as carbon sources. The best growth was observed when GOS or FOS were used as carbon source, while inulin was the worst. The best growth in all oligosaccharides was observed in Lactobacillus R23H, followed by L. rhamnosus B16, L. rhamnosus R23, and L. rhamnosus R14. Further study on R23H (heterofermenter) and R23 (homofermenter) shows that there was no difference in metabolizing oligosaccharides between heterofermenter and homofermenter. GOS was the best prebiotic used by the both lactic acid bacteria as shown by rapid decrease of total sugar. The reducing sugar in medium containing GOS was higher than other oligosaccharides. The decrease of total sugar in medium containing inulin was the slowest, indicating that inulin was the most difficult prebiotic to be metabolized by the lactic acid bacteria. When inulin mixed with GOS in the ratio 1:9, the rate of decreasing of total sugar in the medium was similar to the medium with GOS as single carbon source, however it cannot be distinguished if the role of inulin took place after GOS disappeared. The rate of sugar metabolism was in accordance with the growth of lactic acid bacteria isolates in medium containing prebiotics. L. rhamnosus R23 was used in sinbiotic fermented milk product combine with FOS, inulin, and inulin:GOS (1:9). After fermentation, remaining sugar in skim milk with additional prebiotics was higher than skim milk without additional prebiotics. Remaining sugar on fermented milk product includes the amount of prebiotic that will be used as carbon source in colon. Combination of potential probiotic L. rhamnosus R23 and mixture of inulin:GOS (1:9) could be used to make sinbiotic fermented milk product.   Key words: lactic acid bacteria, prebiotic, inulin, FOS, GOS
Lilis Nuraida, Nur Rita Mardiana, Didah Nur Faridah, Hana .


[Development of Dried Noodle Made of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Flour and Prediction of Its Shelf Life Using Sorption Isotherm Method]

Sugiyono1)*, Edi Setiawan1), Elvira Syamsir1), dan Hery Sumekar2)

1) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institiut Pertanian Bogor

2) Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)


Diterima 10 Februari 2010/ Disetujui 22 November 2011



The objective of this research was to develop dried noodle product made of sweet potato flour and to predict its shelf life using sorption isotherm method. The product was produced through gelatinization of dough, followed by sheeting, steaming, and drying. The best quality product was produced through gelatinization for 20 minutes followed by steaming for 10 minutes. The best quality product had 5.86% moisture, 3.10% ash, 0.23% fat, 2.66% protein, and 88.15% carbohydrate. The product had 54.43 degree of whiteness, 28.75 gf of elasticity, 3.5 minutes of rehydration time, 53.23% of water absorption capacity, and 14.85% of cooking loss. The sorption isotherm curve of the product was best described by Henderson model. The shelf lives of the packed product in low density polyethylene, medium density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, and polypropylene at 80% RH were calculated to be 55, 92, 277 and 150 days respectively.


Key words: noodle, sweet potato, gelatinization, sorption isotherm, shelf life

. Sugiyono, Edi Setiawan, Elvira Syamsir, Hery Sumekar


[Chemical and Physical Properties of Liquid Sugar from Yam (Dioscorea hispida Dennts) Starch]

Parwiyanti*, Filli Pratama dan Renti Arnita

Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sriwijaya


Diterima 15 Maret 2010 / Disetujui 22 November 2011



The objective of this research was to determine chemical and physical properties of liquid sugar made from yam starch (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) through enzymatic hydrolysis by using α-amylase. The experiment was designed as a Factorial Block Randomized Design with two factors and three replications. The first factor was concentrations of α-amylase (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%), and the second was the time course of enzymatic hydrolysis (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min). The liquid sugar was analyzed in term of reducing sugar content, equivalent dextrose value, pH, and viscosity. The addition of different concentrations of α-amylase had significant effects (p >0.05) on reducing sugar contents and equivalent dextrose values. Enzymatic hydrolysis time course had significant effects (p >0.05) on reducing sugar content, equivalent dextrose values, pHs, and viscosity of the liquid sugar. The best liquid sugar was obtained by 0.5% α-amylase treatment for 60 min of hydrolysis. The liquid sugar had reducing sugar of 103.92 g/L, equivalent dextrose value of 34.64, pH of 5.36, and viscosity of 112.00 Poise.


Key words : liquid sugar, detoxicated yam, a-amylase, reducing sugar

. Parwiyanti, Filli Pratama, Renti Arnita


 [Physical Properties of Crude Palm Oil and Their Correlations to the Quality Attributes]

Nur Wulandari1,2)*, Tien R. Muchtadi1), Slamet Budijanto1), dan Sugiyono1)

1) Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor

2) South East Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, LPPM, Institut Pertanian Bogor


Diterima 12 Agustus 2011 / Disetujui 29 November 2011



Indonesia is the largest producer and exporter of crude palm oil (CPO) in the world. Process engineering applications of CPO during handling, transporting, and processing, need baseline data related to CPO’s physical properties. This research was aimed to obtain baseline data about physical properties of CPO and to study the correlation between CPO’s quality attributes to their physical property parameters. Study on physical property and quality of CPO was conducted to five CPO samples from different CPO’s producers. Those samples had variations on physical property parameters and quality attributes. Some physical property parameters of CPO were depended on the temperature of measurements. CPO samples showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour at 25°C with various flow behaviour index (n) and concistency index (K), other wise at 55°C all CPO samples showed Newtonian behaviour.There were good correlations between quality attributes of CPO to their physical property parameters at 25°C, including correlations between free fatty acid contents of CPO and the temperatures of crystallization, as well as between iodine values and the rheological properties of CPO.


Key words: palm oil, quality, physical property, rheology

Nur Wulandari, Tien R. Muchtadi, Slamet Budijanto, Sugiyono .



[Effect of Flour to Water Ratio on Characteristics of Fresh Rice-Based Spring Rolls Wrappers]

Anna Ingani Widjajaseputra1)*, Harijono 2) , Yunianta2), dan Teti Estiasih2)

1) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Unika Widya Mandala Surabaya, Jalan Dinoyo 42-44, Surabaya

2) Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, Malang


Diterima 25 November 2009 / Disetujui 12 Desember 2011



Flour to water ratio in batter compositions affected water availability which was needed to provide physical and chemical changes during fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers processing, such as gel forming of starches and heat-induced gels, flour’s components interactions in batter systems. Degree of water-starch, water-protein and protein–starch-water interactions were depend on water amount, temperature and duration of heating. The mechanical strength of spring rolls wrappers is one of problems when it is being used. The wrappers could be torn apart due to moisture absorption from the filling and the environment. The goal of this study was to determine the optimum flour to water ratio in formulation of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. The investigation was provided by Randomized Completely Block Design with single factor and three replicates. The factor was rice flour to water ratio in six levels (3.0:4.5; 3.0:5.0;3.0:5.5; 3.0:6.0; 3.0:6.5; and 3.0:7.0) the data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance with 95% degree of confident. Flour to water ratio greatly influenced elongation at break which is important in the utilization of fresh rice-based spring rolls wrappers. Its ratio also influenced the size of swelled rice starch granules, pores size and moisture content of the products. Optimal ratio flour to water is 3.0:6.0 which produced the highest elongation at break.


Key words: flour to water ratio, rice-based, fresh, spring rolls wrappers, characteristics

Anna Ingani Widjajaseputra, . Harijono, . Yunianta, Teti Estiasih


[Instant Ledok Formulation by Addition of Frigate Mackerel and Seaweed]

I Ketut Suter*, I Made Anom Sutrisna Wijaya dan Ni Made Yusa

Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Udayana Kampus Bukit Jimbaran


Diterima 02 Juli 2010 / Disetujui 19 Desember 2011



Ledok is a traditional food from Nusa Penida, Bali, in form of non-rice porridge. The main ingredients of ledok are corn and cassava, and other ingredients are peanut, red bean and spinach. These ingredients are locally available. In this study, nutrient content of instant ledok was increased through improving the formulation by adding frigate mackerel and seaweed. The study was conducted in order to find out the best formulation of instant ledok. The experiment was carried out through a Random Block Design, with five formulations of frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio in two replicates. The treatment was ratio of frigate mackerel and seaweed: (1) RI = 0 : 0, (2) R2 = 0 : 30, (3) R3 = 10 : 20, (4) R4 = 20 : 10 and (5) R5 = 30 : 0. The characteristics of instant ledok observed were: sensory characteristics and nutrient contents. The results of the study showed that there was no significant effect of formulation to acceptability of colour and odour, but there were significant effects to taste, texture and general acceptability of instant ledok. The best formulation of instant ledok was formulation R5 with addition of frigate mackerel and seaweed ratio of 30 : 0.The nutrition contents of this instant ledok were 79.60% of water, 0.74% of ash, 3.17% of protein, 3.85% of fat, 12.64% of carbohydrate, 21.15 mg/100 g of vitamin C and 3.43% of vitamin C.


Key words: instant ledok, frigate mackerel, seaweed

I Ketut Suter, I Made Anom Sutrisna Wijaya, Ni Made Yusa
Budiasih Wahyuntari