STUDI MENGENAI TOKSISITAS SURFAKTAN DETERJEN, ALKYL SULFATE (AS), TERHADAP POST LARVA UDANG WINDU Penaeus monodon Fabr

  • Eddy Supriyono
  • Berlianti .
  • Kukuh Nirmala

Abstract

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui toksisitas surfaktan deterjen alkyl sulfate (AS) terhadap post larva udang windu Penaeus monodon Fabr. Pada uji akut, udang windu PL10 dipaparkan pada media yang mengandung AS selama 96 jam dan dihitung nilai Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) pada jam ke 24, 48, 72, dan 96. Pada uji sub kronis udang windu PL15 dipaparkan selama 24 hari dan diamati nilai laju pertumbuhannya. Selama uji toksisitas akut dan sub-kronis juga dilakukan pengamatan perubahan histopatologi pada insang dan hepatopankreas udang. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50 AS pada jam ke- 24, 48, 72, dan 96 yaitu masing-masing sebesar 33.6, 29.4, 24.3, dan 22.8 mg/l. Saat uji sub kronis, perlakuan pemberian AS terhadap media pemeliharaan menurunkan laju pertumbuhan udang windu seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi AS dan secara nyata terlihat mulai konsentrasi 17.11 mg/l. Selama uji akut dan sub kronis terjadi perubahan tingkah laku dan kerusakan pada insang dan hepatopankreas pada udang yang dipaparkan dengan AS mulai terlihat pada konsentrasi 25.58 mg/l jam ke-96 dan 34.99 mg/l jam ke- 72 pada uji akut dan pada uji sub kronis mulai terjadi pada konsentrasi 9.78 mg/l pada pengamatan hari ke- 24. Toksisitas AS terhadap juvenil udang windu semakin meningkat dengan semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi dan waktu pemaparan.


Kata kunci: toksisitas, udang windu, alkyl sulfate, LC50, pertumbuhan, histopathologi.

 

This study was done to find out the toxicity of surfactant detergent alkyl suphate (AS) on post larvae of black tiger shrimp. For acute toxicity test, the PL10 shrimps were exposed in seawater containing AS for 96 hours and Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours were estimated. For sub chronic test, juvenile shrimps at PL15 were exposed in sea water media containing AS for 24 days, and the growth rate of the shrimps were evaluated in order to determine the toxicity effect of AS to juvenile shrimp. During acute and sub-chronic test the histopathological changed of the gills and hepatopanchreas of the shrimp were also examined. This study resulted that LC50 of AS for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours was estimated to be 33.6, 29.4, 24.3, and 22.8 mg/l of AS. At sub-chronic level, the growth rate of the shrimps was decreased by increasing concentration of AS and significantly affected at 17.11 mg/l of AS. During acute and sub-chronic test the behavior changing and gill epithelium and hepathopancreatic cell damage was common occurred in the shrimps when exposed in AS at 25.58 mg/l of AS for 96 hours and 34.99 mg/l of AS for 72 hours exposed time during acute test and also occurred starting from 9.78 mg/l of exposed concentration of AS for 24 days exposed time. The toxicity of AS to juvenile tiger black shrimp elevated by the increased of exposure time.

 


Key words: toxicity, Alkyl Sulphate, black tiger shrimp, LC50, growth, histopathology.

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Published
2016-05-23