Artani Hapsari, Afif Kurniawan


Early adulthood becomes a period which cognitive and physical development functions optimally so that it affect young adult to have new activities and experiences that are vulnerable to an unhealthy lifestyle, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and excessive caffeine consumption. The more daily activity they have, the higher they become depressed that impacts on irregular sleep patterns, decreased sleep quality, and experience symptoms of insomnia. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) to improve sleep quality in patients with insomnia symptoms in early adulthood. The study used an experimental research method with one group pre-test post-test experimental design, and took samples of 4 people with age range between 20-25 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used as measurement tool and furthermore writer used Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test to analyze the data. The results showed a significant sleep quality difference of 4 subjects prior and after CBT. CBT’s components such as stimulus control, sleep restriction, sleep hygiene education, and cognitive therapy believed to affects sleep quality in this study. Other than that, internal factors like motivation and obedient towards therapy and also external factors like support from fellow subjects or family members become factors which affects changes in subjects’ condition.


cognitive Behavior Therapy, dewasa awal, gangguan tidur, insomnia, kualitas tidur

Full Text:



Abdullah, A.Z., Arsin, A.A., & Yahya, M. (2012). Determinan insomnia pada lanjut usia. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional, 7, (4), 154-157. doi: 10.21109/kesmas.v7i4.51.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychological Association. (2017). Stress in America: The State of Our Nation. Diaskes pada tanggal 19 September 2018 dari https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress/2017/state-nation.pdf

Asano, K., Ishimura, I., Abe, H., Nakazato, M., Nakagawa, A., & Shimizu, E. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy as the basis for preventive intervention in a sleep health program: aquasi-experimental study of e-Mail newsletters to college students. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 4, 9-16, doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2015.41002.

Aulia, S., & Panjaitan, R.U. (2019). Kesejahteraan psikologis dan tingkat stres pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir. Jurnal Keperawatan Jiwa, 7, (2), 127-134

Buysse, D.J., Reynolds,C.F., Monk,T.H., Berman,S.R., & Kupfer,D.J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI): a new instrument for psychiatric research and practice. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213, 1989, doi: 10.5665/sleep.3298.

Chamberlain, S.R. & Grant, J.E. (2019). Relationship between quality of life in young adults and impulsivity/compulsivity. Psychiatry Research (271), 253-258, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.11.059.

Chan, V., Moore, J., Derenne, J., & Fuchs, D.C. (2019). Transitional age youth and college mental health. Child Adolescence Psychiatric Clininal N Am, 363-375, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2019.02.008.

Cunnington, D., Junge, M.F., & Fernando, A.T. (2013). Insomnia: prevalence, consequences and effective treatment. MJA,199: S36-S40, doi: 10.5694/mja13.10718.

Davidson, J.R., Dawson, S., & Krsmanovic, A. (2017). Effectiveness of group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in a primary care setting. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 00:1-13, doi: 10.1080/15402002.2017.1318753

Driver, H., Gottschalk, R., Hussain, M., Morin, C.M., Shapiro, C., & Zyl, L.V. (2012). Insomnia in Adults and Children. Ontario, Canada: Joli Joco Publications Inc

Fatima, Y., Doi, S.A.R., Najman, J., & Al-Mamun, A. (2016). Exploring gender difference in sleep quality of young adults: findings from a large population study.Clinical Medicine & Research 14, (3-4): 138-144, doi:10.3121/cmr.2016.1338.

Feldman, R.S. (2018). Development Across the Life Span: Eight Edition. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Fenn, M.K. & Byrne. M. (2013). The key principles of cognitive behavioral therapy. InnovAiT, 6(9), 579-585, doi: 10.1177/1755738012471029.

Giri, P.A., Baviskar, M.P., & Phalke, D.B. (2013). Study of sleep habits and sleep problems among medical students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Loni, Western Maharashtra, India. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 2013, 3(1): 193-197, doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.109488.

Gunanthi, N.M.W.M. & Diniari, N.K.S. (2016). Prevalensi dan gambaran gangguan tidur berdasarkan karakteristik mahasiswa Semester I Program Studi Pendidikan Dokter Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Udayana Tahun 2015. E-Journal Medika, 5(4)

Hurlock, E.B. (2011). Psikologi Perkembangan: Suatu Pendekatan Sepanjang Rentang Kehidupan. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Hombali, A., Seow, E., Yuan, Q., Chang, S.H., Satghare, P., Kumar, S., Verma, S.K., Mok, Y.M., Chong, S.A., & Subramaniam, M. (2018). Prevalence and correlates of sleep disorder symptomps in psychiatric disorders. Psychiatry Research, 2018 Jul 6. pii: S0165-1781(18)30268-3, doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.07.009.

Jungquist, C.R., O’Brien, C., Matteson-Rusby, S., Smith, M.T., Pigeon, W.R., Xia, Y., . . . Perlis, M.L. (2010). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in patients with chronic pain. Sleep Medicine 11(3), p.302-309, doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2009.05.018.

Kryger, M., Roth, T., & Dement, W.C. (2017). Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine: Sixth Edition. Philadephia: Elsevier.

Koffel, E.A., Koffel, J.B., & Gehrman, P.R. (2015). A Meta-analysis of group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 19,6-16. doi: 10.1016/j.sm rv.2014.05.001

Lee, J.O., Hill, K.G., Hartigan, L.A., Boden, J.M., Guttmannova, K., Kosterman, R., . . . Catalano, R.F. (2015). Unemployment and substance use problems among young adults: does childhood low socioeconomic status exacerbate the effect?. Social Science & Medicine (143), 36-44, doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.08.016.

Liu, J., Modrek, S., & Sieverding, M. (2017). The mental health of youth adults during the transition to adulthood in Egypt. Demographic Research, 36, (56), 1721-1758, doi : 10.4054/DemRes.2017.36.56.

Lund, H.G., Reider, B.D., Whiting, A.B., & Prichard, J.R. (2010). Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students. Journal of Adolescent Health 46 (2010) 124-132, doi: 10.1016.j.jadohealth.2009.06.016.

Madrid-Valero, J.J., Martinez-Selva, J.M., Couto, B.R., Sanchez-Romera, J.F., & Ordonana, J.R. (2017). Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.Gac Sanit, 2017:31(1) : 18-22, doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2016.05.013

Maher, J.M., Markey, J.C., & Ebert-May, D. (2013). The other half of the story: effect size analysis in quantitative research. CBE-Life Sciences Education Vol.12, 345-351, doi : 10.1187/cbe.13-04-0082

Manber, R., Bernert, R.A., Suh, S., Nowakowski, S., Siebern, A.T., & Ong, J.C. (2011). CBT for insomnia in patients with high and low depressive symptom severity: adherence and clinical outcomes. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7, (6), 645-652, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.1472.

Manjavong, M., Limpawattana, P., Mairiang, P., & Anutrakulchai, S. (2016). Prevalence of insomnia and related impact: an analysis from a university community. The Internasional Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 51(6) 544-553, doi: 10.1177/0091217417696731.

Mao, H., Ji, Y., Xu, Y.,Tang, G., Yu, Z., Xu, L., . . .Wang, W. (2017). Group-Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in insomnia: a cross-sectional case-controleed study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment,13 : 2841-2848, doi: 10.2147/NDT.S149610

McMain, S., Newman, M.G., Segal, Z.V., & DeRubeis, R,J. (2015). Cognitive bavioral therapy: current status and future research directions. Psychotherapy Research. 25(3),.321-329, doi: 10.1080/10503307.2014.1002440.

Morawetz, D. (2003). Insomnia and depression: which comes first?. Sleep Research Online 5(2): 77-81, 2003.

Nakata, A., Haratani, T., Takahashi, M., Kawakami, N., Arito, H., Kobayashi, F., & Araki, S. (2004). Job stressm social support, and prevalence of insomnia in a population of Japanese daytime workers. Social Science & Medicine 59, (2004), 1719-1730. doi: 10.016/j.socscimed.2004.02.002.

Nurdin, M.A., Arsin, A.A., & Thaha, R.M. (2018). Kualitas hidup penderita insomnia pada mahasiswa. Jurnal MKMI, 14 (2), doi: 10.30597/mkmi.v14i1.3464.

Robinson, O.C., & Wright, G.R.T. (2013). The prevalence, types and percieved outcomes of crisis episodes in early adulthood and midlife: a structured retrospective-autobiographical study. Internasional Journal of Behavioral Development 37 (5): 407-416.

Sarmento, M. (2015). A mental health profile of higher education students. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191:12-20, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.606.

Schlarb, A.A., Faber, J., Hautzinger, M. (2018). CBT-I and HT-I Group Therapy for adults with insomnia in comparison to those with insomnia and comorbid depression-a pilot study. Neuopsychiatric Disease and Treatment,14,2429-2438, doi: 10.2147/NDT.S164899.

Spence, S.H. (2003). Social skills training with children and young people: theory, evidence, and practice. Child and Adolescent Mental Health,8, (2), 84-96.

Spielman, A.J., Saskin, P., Thorpy, M.J. (1987). Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep, 10(1):45-56.

Takano, T., Isojima, M., Tanaka, M., Yamamoto, M., Sasaki, N., Somemura, H., Nakamura, S., Katsuragawa, S., & Tanaka, K. (2016). Effects of brief CBT-I on sleep quality and psychological distress in shift workers without the midnight shift. Kitasato Medical Journal; 46: 118-125.

Tang, J., Liao, Y., Kelly, B.C., Xie, L., Xiang, Y.T., Qi, C., . . . Pan, C. (2017). Gender and regional differences in sleep quality and insomnia: a general population-based study in Hunan Province of China. Scientific Reports, 7:43690. doi: 10.1038/srep43690

Taylor, D.J., Gardner, C.E., Bramoweth, A.D., Williams, J.M., Roane, B.M., Grieser, E.A., & Tatum, J.I. (2011). Insomnia and mental health in college students. Behavioral and Sleep Medicine, 9:107-116, doi : 10.1080/154002002.2011.557992.

Taylor, D.J. & Pruiksma, K.E. (2014). Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in psychiatric populations: a systematic review. Internasional Review of Psychiatry, April 2014; 26 (2): 205-213, doi: 10.3109/09540261.2014.902808.

Taylor, D.J., Zimmerman, M.R., Gardner, C.E.,Williams, J.M., Grieser, E.A., Tatum, J.I., Bramoweth, A.D., Francetich, J.M., & Ruggero, C. (2014). A pilot randomized controlled trial of the effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for insomnia on sleep and daytime functioning in college students.Behavior Therapy, 45 (2014): 376-389.

Tibbits, G.M. (2008). Sleep disorders: causes, effects, and solutions. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice, 35(4),817-837, doi:10.1016/j.pop.2008.07.006.

Trauer, J.M., Qian, M.Y., Doyle, J.S., Rajaratnam, S.M.W., & Cunnington, D. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American College of Physicians, 163: 191-204, doi:10.7326/M14-2841.

Tsou, M.T. (2018). Gender-specific correlations of insomnia and attitudes toward treatment among community-dwelling elderly in northern Taiwan. Internasional Journal of Gerontology 12 (2018) 200-204. doi: 10.1016/j.ijge.2017.07.002.

Verbeek, I.H., Konings, G.M., Aldenkamp, A.P., & Declerck, A.C. (2006). Cognitive behavioral treatment in clinically referred chronic insomniacs: group versus individual treatment. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 4(3), 135-151, doi: 10.1207/s15402010bsm0403_1.

Walia, H.K., & Mehra, R. (2016). Overview of common sleep disorders and intersection with dermatologic conditions. Internasional Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 654, doi:10.3390/ijms17050654.

Williams, J., Roth, A., Vatthauer, & McCrae, C.S. (2013). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia. Contemporary Reviews in Sleep Medicine, American College of Chest Physicians, doi: 10.1378/chest.12-0731.

World Health Organization. (2016). Work Organization & Stress. Diakses pada tanggal 19 September 2018 dari http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/pwh3rev.pdf

Yamadera, W., Sato, M., Harada, D., Iwashita, M., Aoki, R., Obuchi, K., . . . Ozone, M. (2013). Comparisons of short-term efficacy between individual and group cognitive beavioral therapy for primary insomnia. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 11: 176-184, doi:10.1111/sbr.12019.

Yi, M.J., Kim, T.W., Jeong, J.H., Joo, S.H., Hong, S.C., & Suh, Soo Yeon. (2012). Case studies of chronic insomnia patients participating in group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia. Sleep Medication Research, 3:45-49, doi: 10.17241/smr.2012.3.2.45.

Ypsilanti, A., Lazuras, L., Robson, A., & Akram, U. (2018). Anxiety and depression mediate the relationship between self-disgust and insomnia disorder. Journal of the National Sleep Foundation 4(4):349-351, doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2018.06.001.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24156/jikk.2019.12.3.223


Editorial Office

Department of Family and Consumer Sciences
Faculty of Human Ecology
Bogor Agricultural University
Jl. Lingkar Akademik, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
Postal Code 16680
Phone/Fax. (0251) 8627432
Website: http://jurnal.ipb.ac.id/index.php/jikk/index
E-mail: jurnal.ikk@gmail.com

Creative Commons License

Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga & Konsumen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.