Perbaikan Kualitas Buah Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava L.) Kultivar Kristal dengan Berbagai Warna dan Bahan Pemberongsong

Atika Romalasari, Slamet Susanto, Maya Melati, Ahmad Junaedi

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Kristal guava is one of the popular guava cultivars nowadays. The guava has white flesh and not-perfectly-round shaped that resembles a crystal and seedless. However, during the growth period fruit undergoes several physical and chemical changes and susceptible to insect infestation and other damage, all of which can reduce their commercial value and thus cause significant yield and economic losses. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of different color and bagging materials on guava fruit development and quality. The research was conducted at farmer farm located in Cikarawang Dramaga, from November 2013 to April 2014. This research was arranged in a randomized block design with one factor, consisted of ten treatments and five replications. The treatments were red plastic, yellow plastic, green plastic, blue plastic, sponnet with red plastic, sponnet with yellow plastic, sponnet with green plastic, sponnet with blue plastic, sponnet with transparent plastic and unbagged. Fruit quality assesment was conducted in Postharvest Laboratory of Agronomy and Horticulture Department, Bogor Agricultural University and Center for Tropical Horticultural Studies. The result showed that bagging improved fruit size, external quality and accelerated fruit maturity. Sponnet with red plastic bagging resulted in the biggest fruit at harvest. Sponnet with yellow or with red plastic baggings were able to maintain fruit peel smoothness up to 85%. Sponnet and plastic bagging resulted in better external quality than bagging with plastic only. Bagging did not show any effect on internal fruit quality.

 

Keywords: colored bag, guava cv. Kristal, soluble solids content, sponnet, titratable acidity


ABSTRAK

Jambu ‘Kristal’ merupakan salah satu kultivar jambu biji yang sedang populer saat ini. Jambu Kristal memiliki daging buah berwarna putih, berbentuk bulat tidak beraturan serta berbiji sedikit. Selama pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah mengalami berbagai perubahan fisik dan kimia dan rentan terhadap serangan hama, yang secara keseluruhan dapat mengurangi nilai komersial sehingga menyebabkan kehilangan yang signifikan dari segi hasil panen dan kerugian ekonomi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan pengaruh warna dan bahan pemberongsong terhadap perbaikan kualitas buah jambu ‘Kristal’. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada November 2013 sampai April 2014, di kebun petani yang berlokasi di Cikarawang, Dramaga, Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan satu faktor yaitu pemberongsongan buah, dengan sepuluh taraf dan lima ulangan. Perlakuan pemberonsongan menggunakan plastik merah, plastik kuning, plastik hijau, plastik biru, sponnet dan plastik merah, sponnet dan plastik kuning, sponnet dan plastik hijau, sponnet dan plastik biru, sponnet dan plastik bening serta tanpa pemberongsong. Pengujian kualitas buah dilakukan di Laboratorium Pascapanen Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Laboratorium Pusat Kajian Hortikultura Tropika (PKHT) IPB. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberongsongan memperbaiki pertumbuhan, kualitas eksternal dan mempercepat pematangan buah. Pemberongsongan sponnet dan plastik merah menghasilkan buah dengan ukuran terbesar pada saat panen. Pemberongsongan menggunakan sponnet dengan plastik kuning atau merah mampu menjaga kemulusan buah hingga 85%. Pemberongsongan sponnet dan plastik menghasilkan kualitas eksternal yang cenderung lebih baik dibandingkan pemberongsongan hanya dengan plastik. Pembrongsongan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap kualitas internal buah.

Kata kunci: asam tertitrasi total, jambu ‘Kristal’, sponet, padatan terlarut total, pemberongsong berwarna


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29244/jhi.8.3.155-161

 

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