Vol 3, No 2 (2008)

Juli 2008

Table of Contents

Articles

Sri Darningsih, Clara Meliyanti Kusharto, Sri Anna Marliyati, Dadan Rohdiana
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61

The cross sectional design was used in this study to elaborate physical activity, energy consumption, and work productivity of men workers. The total number of sample is 72 men.  The inclusion criteria of  the sample is the head of household’s women tea pickers at Tea Plantation PTPN VIII Bandung, West Java who have children 0-72 month age and willing to be interviewed. The place of the research was chose purposively. Malabar Plantation was chosen from the other five plantations (clusters) cause of its easier access and the homogenous characteristics inter cluster. Data collected was analyzed statistically. In general, more than a half of samples had  active or moderately physical activity  level (PAL=1.89). The physical activity level of samples during work day (average PAL=1.93) was higher than holiday (average PAL=1.77) (p<0.05). The working hours during holiday were substituted by doing domestic chores and miscellaneous recreational activities. There are significant differences (p<0.05) of energy requirement based on three calculation (Schofield equation, Oxford equation, and energy RDI on WNPG (2004)). Average energy consumption of men workers were 87.2 - 121.2%.  Majority of samples (76.4%) had wages per month below the regional minimum wages. The working hours of more than a half of samples were below seven hours per day and had wages per hour below standard regional minimum wage. Based on correlation analysis, there are significant correlation between 1) education level with physical activity level; 2) age, income per capita, and family size with wage per month; 3) age and physical activity level with working hours; and 4) age and  income per capita with wages per hour.

Keywords:  physical activity, energy expenditure, energy   adequacy level, work productivity, tea picker’s household   head.

Noni Eka Jaya Wardani, Katrin Roosita
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Quality of human resources is very important to improve productivity. The worker productivity is correlated with nutritional status and health status. The objective of the research is to analyze physical activity, energy intake, nutritional status, of women workers at Tea Plantation PTPN VIII Bandung, West Java. The cross sectional design was used in this study to elaborate physical activity, nutritional status, and productivity of tea picker’s women. The criteria of study sample were tea picker’s women at cluster area of Malabar tea plantation of PTPN VIII Bandung, having infant and they were willing to be interviewed. The total number of 92 women sample was chosen randomly. Primary data consisted of physical activity recall (2x24 hours), food consumption recall (2x24 hours), anthropometry data (weight and height), and productivity (passage of tea sprout). Secondary data were included data of PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Bandung, West Java. The result showed that more than a half of samples having active or moderate physical activity level (PAL). The physical activity level of samples during work day (average PAL=1.87) was higher than holiday (average PAL=1.69) (p<0.05). The physical activity was related to energy expenditure. According to Schofield equation, energy expenditure of sample during workday (average=2362 kcal) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than day off (average=2134 kcal). This result is related to Oxford equation, energy expenditure of sample during workday (average=2223 kcal) was significantly higher than holiday (average=2011 kcal). The related factors of energy expenditure are body weight and age. Energy intake on workday and day off were respectively 2362 kcal and 2134 kcal. The average energy adequacy level during workday and day off according to Schofield and Oxford equation were not significantly different, respectively 97,2% and 103,3%. The majority of samples had normal nutritional status, and 30.4% of the sample was overweight. The energy adequacy level according to Schofield and Oxford equation are related to nutritional status of women workers.

Keywords: physical activity, energy expenditure, nutritional status, plantation women
Venny Agustiani Mahardikawati, Katrin Roosita
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The aim of this research is to study environmental condition, healthy life behaviour, and health status of women tea picker’s family in PTPN VIII Pengalengan, Bandung, West Java. The cross sectional study design is used in this research and total number of samples are 92  family of women tea picker who live in Malabar Plantation. The inclusion criteria of the sample is having children 0-72 month age and willing to be interviewed. The place of the research was chosen purposively. Malabar Plantation was chosen from the other five plantations (clusters) because of its easier access and the homogenous characteristics of inter cluster. Primary data consists of family characteristics, environmental condition, healthy life behavior, and family’s health status. Secondary data consists of general description of Malabar Plantation and Banjarsari Village. Data was processed and analyzed with descriptive statistic and inference, and correlation analysis used Rank Spearman correlation test. The results revealed that the family were live in average (moderate) environmental condition, and only a few families live in good environmental condition. Their family’s health behaviour was good. The symptoms/kind of diseases which found among the samples were fever, acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases, digestion organ diseases, skin disease, and hepatitis. Family’s member who was the most susceptible to disease was children. The related factors to environmental condition of women tea picker’s family were family income and family size. The water source used by the families, which was one of factors of the environmental condition’s, was related to  health status of women tea picker’s family. The acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease and hepatitis cases in family were related to better water source for taking a bath, wash the dishes and wash hands after defecation. Better water source, then less cases of the diseases.

Keywords: environment, healthy life behavior, tea picker family, health status
Yuli Fitriyani, Katrin Roosita, Yekti Hartati Effendi
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Dadang Sukandar, Nani Sufiani Suhanda, Leily Amalia, . Khairunisa
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Food demand can be found dynamic, altering by the change in price and income. How great the influence of those changes to food consumption is the important information as the basic consideration for government in creating policy related to food consumption. The objective of the research, which has survey design, was to analyze staple food consumption and demand pattern in household in Indonesia. The research was conducted in Bogor, from March to June 2008 by using secondary data Susenas year 2005 with 64.709 households as the samples. The staple food analyzed were rice, corn, cassava, sweet potato, wheat flour and its derived product (instant noodle, noodle). Data was processed by SAS program version 6.12 and Double-Log Regression econometrical model. Then, it was analyzed descriptively. Result shows that rice has the biggest expenditure proportion among staple food. Almost all staple food is obtained by purchasing, except in corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes. Energy contribution from rice reaches half of total energy consumption. The consumption of rice, corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, wheat flour and its derived product, instant noodle, and wheat noodle per capita per year are 100.52 kg, 3.36 kg, 11.67 kg, 4.10 kg, 5.09 kg, 3.39 kg, and 0.22 kg. Staple food which has consumption participation level almost 100% is rice. The own price elasticity of staple foods are not elastic, except in corn, wheat flour and its derived product. The income elasticity of all staple foods is not elastic in all category of region and income stratification. The demand elasticity of staple food give some implications on consumption and food consumption improvement, they are: 1) raising price of staple food can decrease consumption, thus, price stability is very important, 2) almost all staple foods has not elastic income elasticity, so that food consumption improvement needs great stimulus of increasing income, 3) poor household is greatly influenced by the increasing of price, thus, food consumption improvement for them must be conducted by doing many relevant efforts, 4) target of decreasing rice consumption is still cannot be reached, so that staple food diversification must be continuously developed, 5) in order to develop local food consumption, like corn, cassava, and sweet potato, the development of agro industry based on local food and Communication Information Education (CIE) about food consumption diversification are essential to be conducted.

Keywords: consumption and demand pattern, staple food, Susenas
Anna Vipta Resti Mauludyani, Drajat Martianto, Yayuk Farida Baliwati
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101
Rian Diana, Katrin Roosita, Ali Khomsan
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118