The Perception of Ageism, Generativity, and the Attainment of Developmental Tasks of Elderly Widowers and Widows in Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
In every stage of human lives as well as later adulthood (elderly), there are developmental tasks to be attained and demand the elderly to adapt to various changes both from the internal and external environment. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of ageism and generativity on the developmental task of elderly widower and widow. The cross-sectional study was used as the design of this research. The research was conducted in Empang Village, South Bogor Sub-District and West Cilendek Village, West Bogor Sub-District, Bogor City. As many as 60 persons were involved as research sample, consisted of 30 elderly widowers and 30 elderly widows which were chosen by snow-ball techniques. The result showed that there was no significant difference in developmental task of elderly widower and widow. The category of ageism was low while generativity and developmental task were moderate. There were significant positive correlations and influences of the length of education and generativity on developmental tasks of elderly widower and widow.
Affandi, M. (2009). Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi penduduk lanjut usia memilih untuk bekerja [Factors that affect the elderly ‘s decision to work]. Journal of Indonesia Applied Economics, 3(2), 99-110. Retrieved from http://jiae.ub.ac.id/index.php/jiae/article/view/131/100.
Ananta, A. (2012). Financing Indonesia’s ageing population. In D. Singh, P. Thambipillai (Eds.), South East Asian affairs (pp. 135-149). Singapore: ISEAS.
Alcock, C. L., Camic, P. M., Barker, C., Haridi, C., & Raven, R. (2011). Intergenerational practice in the community: A focused ethnographic evaluation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 21(5), 419-432. doi: 10.1002/casp.1084.
Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1−34). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Braithwaite, V. A., & Gibson, D. M. (1987). Adjustment to retirement: What we know and what we need to know. Ageing and Society, 7(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1017/SO144686X00012265.
Braithwaite, V. A., Gibson, D. M., & Bosly-Craft, R. (1986). An exploratory study of poor adjustment styles among retirees. Social Science and Medicine, 23, 493–499. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(86)90009-2.
Chen, S. M., Wang, S. H., & Lin, P. S. (2011, July). The relationship between the living arrangement and life satisfaction of the elderly. Paper presented at Enhr Conference, Toulouse, France. Retrieved from http://www.enhr2011.com/sites/default/files/paper-Shumei%20CHEN-WS15.pdf.
Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and Society (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.
Hapsah. (2010). Pengaruh terapi kelompok terapeutik terhadap perkembangan generativitas perempuan paruh baya di Kabupaten Pinrang tahun 2010 [The influence group therapy therapeutic on the development of generativity of middle-aged woman in Pinrang 2010] (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://lib.ui.ac.id/detail.jsp&id=20282726&lokasi=lokal.
Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental Tasks and Education (3rd ed.). New York, NY: David McKay.
Hurlock, E. B. (2009). Psikologi Perkembangan: Suatu Pendekatan Sepanjang Rentang Kehidupan [Developmental Psychology: A Life-Span Approach] (Istiwidayanti & Doedjarwo, Trans.). Jakarta, Indonesia: Erlangga.
Huta, V., & Zuroff, D. C. (2007). Examining mediators of the link between generativity and well-being. Journal of Adult Development, 14, 47–52. doi: 10.1007/s10804-007-9030-7.
James, J. B., & Zarrett, N. (2005). Ego integrity in the lives of older women: A follow-up of mothers from the Sears, Maccoby, and Levin (1951) patterns of child rearing study. Journal of Adult Development, 12(4), 155-167. doi: 10.1007/s10804-005-7084-y.
Kurniasari, K., & Leonardi, T. (2013). Kualitas perempuan lanjut usia yang melajang [The quality of single older women]. Jurnal Psikologi Pendidikan dan Perkembangan, 2(3), 152-159. Retrieved from http://journal.unair.ac.id/download-fullpapers-jpppa9f22e5035full.pdf.
Lee, G. R., DeMaris, A., Bavin, S., Sullivan, R. (2001). Gender differences in the depressive effect of widowhood in later life. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 56B(1), S56-S61. doi: 10.1093/geronb/56.1.s56.
Maryam, R. S., Ekasari, M. F., Rosidawati, Jubaedi, A., & Batubara, I. (2008). Mengenal Usia Lanjut dan Perawatannya [Recognizing the Elderly and the Maintenance]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Salemba Medika.
McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (2012). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(6), 1003-1015. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993.
Meeks, S., & Murrell, S. A. (2001). Contribution of education to health and life satisfaction in older adults mediated by negative affect. Journal of Aging and Health, 13, 92–119.
Mujtaba, B. G., Hinds, R. M., & Oskal, C. (2004). Cultural paradigms of age discrimination and unearned privileges. Journal of Business and Economics Research, 2(12), 31-44. Retrieved from http://www.cluteinstitute.com/ojs/index.php/JBER/article/view/2948/2996.
Okoye, U. O., & Obikeze, D. S. (2005). Stereotypes and perceptions of the elderly by the youth in Nigeria: Implications for social policy. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 24(5), 439-452. doi: 10.1177/0733464805278648.
Palmore, E. (2001). The ageism survey: First findings. The Gerontologist, 41(5), 572-575. doi: 10.1093/geront/41.5.572.
Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2007). Human Development (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Puspitawati, H., & Herawati, T. (2013). Metode Penelitian Keluarga [Family Research Method]. Bogor, Indonesia: IPB Press.
Rahardjo, T. B. W., Hartono, T., Dewi, V. P., Hogervorst, E., & Arifin, E. V. (2009). Facing the geriatric wave in Indonesia financial conditions and social support. In E. N. Arifin & A. Ananta (Eds.), Older persons in Southeast Asia (pp. 272-298). Singapore: ISEAS.
Sánchez, P. C., Trianes, T. M. V., & Blanca, M. M. J. (2009). Negative aging stereotypes and their relation with psychosocial variables in the elderly population. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48(3), 385-390. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2008.03.007
Schoklitsch, A., & Baumann, U. (2011). Measuring generativity in older adults. GeroPsych, 24(1), 31-43. doi: 10.1024/1662-9647/a000030
Setiabudhi, T., & Hardywinoto. (2005). Panduan Gerontologi Tinjauan dari Berbagai Aspek: Menjaga Keseimbangan Kualitas Hidup Para Lanjut Usia [Gerontology Guide Overview of Various Aspects: Balancing the Quality of Life of the Elderly]. Jakarta, Indoneisa: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
State Ministry of National Development Planning. (2014). Bappenas dan BPS rancang proyeksi penduduk 2035 [Bappenas and Statistics Indonesia design and population projections 2035]. Retrieved from http://perpustakaan.bappenas.go.id/lontar/file?file=digital/120891-%5B_Konten_%5D-Bappenas-Hen0001.pdf.
Statistics Indonesia. (2015). Life Expectancy of Population on Selected Countries (years), 1995-2015. Retrieved from http://www.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/1517.
Strasser, M. (2008). Does Reaching Generativity Denote Lack of Depression Later in Life?. Illinois, IL: Proquest.
Sudoyo, A. W., Setiyohadi, B., Alwi, I., Simadibrata, M., & Setiati, S. (2009). Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam [Textbook of Medicine]. (2nd vol., 5th ed.). Jakarta, Indonesia: Interna Publishing.
Sunarti, E. (2004). Mengasuh dengan Hati [Parenting with Heart]. Jakarta, Indonesia: PT Elex Media Komputindo.
Syafrudin, & Mariam, N. (2010). Sosial Budaya Dasar Untuk Mahasiswa Kebidanan [Social and Cultural Basis For Midwifery Students]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Trans Info Media Jakarta.
Uhlendorff, U. (2004). The concept of developmental-tasks and its significance for education and social work. Social Work and Society, 2(1), 54-63. Retrieved from http://www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/240/415.
Vaillant, G. E. (2004). Positive aging. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive Psychology in Practice. NJ: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/9780470939338.ch34.
Versey, H. S., & Newton, N. J. (2013). Generativity and productive pursuits: pathways to successful aging in late midlife African American and White women. Journal of Adult Development, 20(2). doi: 10.1007/s10804-013-9170-x.
World Health Organization. (2015). Definition of an older or elderly person. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).