Perakitan Varietas Hibrida Jagung Manis Berdaya Hasil Tinggi dan Tahan Terhadap Penyakit Bulai

Sriani Sujiprihati, Muhamad Syukur, Andi Takdir Makkulawu, R Neny Iriany

Abstract


Sweet corn is a result of recessive mutation which occurs naturally in gene that controls the conversion of sugar into starch in corn seed endosperm. There are 3 main genes that affect corn sweetness, namely sugary gene (su), sugary enhancer gene (se), and shrunken gene (sh2). This study aims to obtain a general combining ability value for the sweet corn lines, which will be the parent in diallel crosses; obtain the information of general combining ability, specific combining ability, and heterosis value for sweet corn lines; and obtain one or more promising single cross hybrids that will be potential for high yield and resistance to downy mildew disease. The study was conducted from April 2009 until November 2011 at the Experimental Field Centre for Cereal Plant Study (BALITSEREAL), Maros, South Sulawesi. The results showed that five genotypes had moderately high yield: Mr4/SC/BC4-3-1B, Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B, Mr11/SC/BC4-3-1B, Mr14/SC/BC3-8-1B, and Mr12/SC/BC4-6-1B. The attack level of downy mildew that was classified as resistant has 0 to 7% rate. The combination of crosses that produce better productivity than all the varieties are: C × A (Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1 × Mr12/SC/BC4-5-B-1), A × D (Mr12/SC/BC4-5-B-1 × Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1), E × B (Mr12/SC/BC3-3-1B -1 × Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B-1), and B × D (Mr11/SC/BC4-2-1B-1 × Mr14/SC/BC4-6-1B-1 ). Five hybrids can be continued for the preliminary testing of yields. Twelve candidate varieties do not have yield different than the checked varieties, so it can proceed to a multilocation trials to explore the advantages that can be released as new varieties.


Keywords


combining ability; full diallel; sweet corn; Zea mays var. saccharata

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel-Moneam MA, Attia AN, El-Emery MI, Fayed EA. 2009. Combining ability and heterosis for some agronomic traits in crosses of maize. Pak J Bio Sci. 12(5): 433-438.

Ahmad A, Saleem M. 2003. Combining ability analysis in Zea mays L. Int J Agric Biol. 5: 239-244.

Alexander DE, Creech C. 1977. Breeding special nutritional and industrial types. In: Corn and Corn Improvement. The American Society of Agronomy Inc.

Dobermann A, Arkebauer T, Cassman K, Lindquist J, Specht J, Walters D, Yang H. 2002. Understanding and managing corn yield potential. Proceedings of the Fertilizer Industry Round Table. Charleston (US): Agronomy-Faculty Publications, University of Nebraska. Hlm. 1-14.

El-Shouny KA, Olfat H, El-Bagaoury HY, El-Sherbieny, Al-Ahmed SA. 2003. Combining ability for yield and its components in yellow maize (Zea mays L.) under two plant densities. Egypt J Plant Breed. 7: 399-417.

Griffing B. 1956. Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing system. Aust Biol Sci. 9(4): 463-493.

Has I, Has V. 2009. Genetic inheritance of some important characters of sweet corn. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj. 37(1): 244-248.

Iriany RN, Makkulawu AT, Isnaini M, Dahlan MM, Subandi. 2003. Evaluasi daya gabung karakter ketahanan tanaman jagung terhadap penyakit bulai melalui persilangan dialel. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian. 22: 14-25.

Johnson EC, Fischer KS, Edmeades GO, Palmer AFE. 1986. Reccurent selection for reduced plant height in lowland tropical maize. Crop Sci. 26(2): 253-260.

Konak C, Unay A, Basal H, Serter E. 2001. Combining ability and heterotic effect in some characteristics of second crop maize. Turk J Field Crops. 16: 64-67.

Lertrat K, Pulam T. 2007. Breeding for increased sweetness in sweet corn. Int J Plant Breed. 1(1): 27-30.

Malik SA, Malik HN, Minhas NM, Munir M. 2004. General and specific combinng ability studies in maize diallel crosses. Int J Agric Biol. 6: 856-859.

Mangoendidjojo W. 2003. Dasar-Dasar Pemuliaan Tanaman. Yogyakarta (ID): Kanisius.

Poehlman JM, Sleper DA. 1990. Breeding Field Crops. Ed. Ke-4. Ames (US): Iowa State University Press.

Rifin A, Setiyono R, Nuraefendi A, Hadian D. 1984. Heterosis and combining ability in corn. Penel Pertan. 4(3): 81-83.

Shurtleff MC. 1980. Compendium of Corn Disease. The American Phytophathological Society.

Subandi MS, Sudjadi, Pasaribu D. 1996. Laporan hasil pemantauan penyakit bulai dan benih palasu pada pertanaman jagung hibrida di Lampung. Bogor (ID): Pusat Penelitian Tanaman Pangan.

Sudjadi MS. 1992. Pengaruh masa tanam, faktor cuaca dan penyakit utama terhadap hasil jagung di lahan tadah hujan Lampung Tengah. Penel Pertan. 12: 104-110.

Sujiprihati S, Saleh GB, Ali ES. 2001. Combining ability analysis of yield and related characters in single cross hybrids of tropical maize (Zea mays L.). Sabrao J Breed Genet. 33: 111-120.

Sujiprihati S, Syukur M, Yunianti R. 2008. Pemuliaan Tanaman. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Tracy W.F. 1994. Sweet Corn Dalam: Specialty Corn. Ames (US): Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University.

Virmani SS. 1994. Heterosis and Hybrid Rice Breeding. Monographs on Theoretical and Applied Genetics 22. Berlin (DE): Springer Verlag.

Walter RF. 1987. Principles of Cultivar Development. Vol. 1. (Theory and Technique). New York (US): MacMillan.




View JIPI Stats

 

   Creative Commons License

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office: Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/Fax: +62251-8622323, email: jipi-lppm@apps.ipb.ac.id; jipi-lppm@ipb.ac.id