Analisis Rasio Energi Daur Ulang Panas pada Produksi Biodiesel Secara Non-Katalitik

Armansyah Halomoan Tambunan, . Furqon, . Joelianingsih, Tetsuya Araki, Hiroshi Nabetani

Abstract


Energy consumption in non-catalytic biodiesel production is still high, and needs to be reduced to the optimum level. It can be accomplished by recirculating the heat being used in the process by using heat exchanger. The objective of this study is to analyze the energy ratio of the system as influenced by the heat recirculation through a heat exchanger. This experiment used a superheated methanol vapor method for non-catalytic biodiesel production. The study was started with the determination and calculation of physical and thermal properties of materials to be used (palm olein, methanol, and methyl ester), continued with the designing of the heat exchanger, the experiment itself, and the energy ratio analysis. The process was occured in semi-batch mode with 3 levels of methanol flow rate, i.e., 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mL/minute, at reaction temperature of 290 °C. The results show that heat recirculation by using heat exchanger can increase the energy ratio from 0.84 to 1.03, according to the definition that energy ratio is the ratio between energy content of the biodiesel to the total energi of the feedstock and the process energy. If the energy ratio is defined as the ratio between the increase in energy content of the biodiesel from its feedstock to the process energy, the energy ratio was found to be 7.85, 2.98, and 2.87 for the respective methanol flow rate of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mL/min.


Keywords


biodiesel; energy ratio; heat exchanger; non-catalytic; superheated methanol vapor

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ceriani R, Goncalves CB, Rabelo J, Caruso M, Cunha ACC, Cavaleri FW, Batista EAC, Meirelles AJA. 2007. Group Contribution Model for Predicting Viscosity of Fatty Compounds. J. Chem. Eng 52(3): 965-972.

Demirbas A. 2002. Biodiesel from vegetable oils via transesterification in supercritical methanol. Energy Convers and Manage. 43: 2349-2356.

Demirbas A. 2005. Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 31: 466-487.

Diasakou M, Louloudi A, Papayannakos N. 1997. Kinetics of the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil. Elsevier Science. 77(12): 129-1302.

Hill J, Nelson E, Tilman D, Polasky S, Tifanny D. 2006. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. PNAS. 103(30): 11206-11210.

Holman JP. 1995. Perpindahan Kalor. Edisi keenam. Jasjfi E, penerjemah; Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. Terjemahan dari: Heat Transfer. Hal. 480-522.

Hong ST, Kim JW, Jang WH, Lim JS, Park HS, Yoo KP, Afel C, Arlt W. 2009. Transesterification of palm oil using supercritical methanol with co-solvent HCFC-141b. Res Chem Intermed. 35: 197-207.

Joelianingsih, Nabetani H, Hagiwara S, Sagara Y, Soerawidjaya TH, Tambunan AH, Abdullah K. 2007. Performance of a bubble column reactor for the non-catalytic metil esterification of free fatty acids at atmospheric pressure. J Chem Eng Japan. 40(9): 780-785.

Joelianingsih, Maeda H, Nabetani H, Sagara Y, Soerawidjaya TH, Tambunan AH, Abdullah K. 2008. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil via the non-catalytic transesterification in a bubble column reactor at atmospheric pressure: a kinetic study. Renewable Energy. 33(7): 1629-1636.

Kusdiana D, Saka S. 2001. Metil esterification of free fatty acids of rapeseed oil as treated in supercritical methanol. J Chem Eng Japan. 34(3): 383-387.

Knothe G, Van Gerpen J, Krahl J. 2005. The Biodi-esel Handbook. Champaign, Illionis: AOCS Press.

Lee S, Speight JG, Loyalka SK. 2007. Handbook of Alternative Fuel Technologies. New York: CRC Press.

Morad NA, Kamal AAM, Panau F, Yew TW. 2000. Liquid Specific Heat Capacity Estimation for Fatty Acid, Triacylglycerol, and Vegetable Oils Based on Their Fatty Acid Composition. J Am Oil Chemists’ Soc. 77(9): 1001-1005.

Narvaez PC, Rincon SM, Castaneda LZ, Sanchez FJ. 2008. Determination of Some Physical and Transport Properties of Palm Oil and of its Metil Esters. Latin American Applied Research. 38: 1-6.

Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. 2009. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied energi. 86: S209-S214.

Pradhan A, Shrestha DS, Garpen JV, Duffield J. 2008. The energy balanced of soybean oil biodiesel production: a review of past studies. Transactions of the ASABE. 51(1): 185-194.

Reklaitis GV. 1983. Introduction to Material and Energy Balances. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Reid RC, Prausnitz JM, Poling BE. 1987. The Pro-perties of Gases and Liquids. 4th ed. USA: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Saka S, Kusdiana D. 2001. Biodiesel fuel from rape-seed oil as prepared in supercritical methanol. Fuel 80: 225-231.

Sigalingging R. 2008. Analisis Energi dan Eksergi pada Produksi Biodiesel Berbahan Baku CPO (Crude Palm Oil). [Tesis]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Tambunan AH. 2010. Disain Pilot Plant Biodisel dengan Reaktor Bubble Methanol; Lokakarya Pengembangan dan Perekayasaan Teknologi Biodiesel. Jakarta: Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi. [21 Oktober 2010].

Van Gerpen J, Shrestha D. 2005. Biodiesel energy balance. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engi-neering.

Warabi Y, Kusdiana D, Saka S. 2004. Reactivity of triglycerides and fatty acids of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols. Bioresource Technology. 91: 283-287.

Yadav A, Singh O, Kumar N. 2010. Evaluation of energy ratios for karanja and neem biodiesel life cycle. S-JPSET. 1(1): 55-59.

Yamazaki R, Iwamoto S, Nabetani H, Osakada K, Miyawaki O, Sagara Y. 2007. Non catalytic alcoholysis of oils for biodiesel fuel production by semi-batch process. Jpn J Food Eng. 8(1): 11-19.




View JIPI Stats

 

   Creative Commons License

This journal is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Editorial Office: Institute for Research and Community Services (LPPM), Andi Hakim Nasoetion Building, 5th Floor, Jl. Raya Darmaga, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia 16680, Telp/Fax: +62251-8622323, email: jipi-lppm@apps.ipb.ac.id; jipi-lppm@ipb.ac.id