Performa dan Profil Kuning Telur Itik yang Diberi Pakan dengan Suplemen Tepung Bawang Putih dan Limbah Udang
This study aimed to investigate the effect of adding garlic and shrimp waste in the ration on the duck performance and lipid profile of yolk. The animals used were 36 ducklings of 19-week old that were randomly placed in 12 battery cages. The experimental design used in this study was a completely randomized design with four treatments and three replicates. The treatments were R0 (control) = Commercial ration, R1 = Commercial ration + 2% garlic, R2 = Commercial ration + 2% shrimp waste, and R3 = K + 1% garlic + 1% shrimp waste. The results showed that the addition of garlic or shrimp waste resulted in a higher egg production (P<0.05) than that of control group, but the combination of garlic and shrimp waste had no significant effect on egg productuon. The addition of garlic, shrimp waste, or a combination of garlic and shrimp waste increased yolk color score significantly (P<0.05). Giving garlic or shrimp waste, and combination of garlic and shrimp waste significantly (P<0.05) lowered the cholesterol content of the eggs compared to controls. The addition of shrimp waste increased the unsaturated fatty acids content of duck eggs, and at the same time increased saturated fatty acid content.
Abdulaziz A, Al Aqil. 2016. Effects of adding different dietary levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Sciences. 15(4): 151-155.
Abramovitz D, Gavri S, Harats D, Levkovitz H, Mirelman D, Miron T, Eilat-Adar S, Rabinkov A, Wilchek M, Eldar M, Vered Z. 1999. Allicin-induced decrease in formation of fatty streaks (atherosclerosis) in mice fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Coronary Artery Disease. 10(7): 515-519.
Alam J, Mathur A. 2014. Antibacterial potential of chitin and chitin based derivatives against pathogenic and drug resistant bacterial strains. Worls Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceitical Sciences. 3(12): 1698-1707.
AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Assoc. Arlington (US): Off Anal Chem.
Azeke MA, Ekpo KK, 2008. Egg yolk cholesterol lowering effect of garlic and tea. Journal of Biological Sciences. 8(2): 456-460. https://doi.org/ 10.3923/jbs.2008.456.460
Banerjee SK, Maulik SK. 2002. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: A review. Nutrition Journal. 1: 4-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-1-4
Canogullari S, Karaman M, Erdogan Z , Baylan M, Kucukgul A , Duzguner V, Ozugur AK. 2009. Effect of garlic powder on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and performance of laying hens. Bulletin of Veterinary Institute Pulawy. 53: 515-519.
Dey SS, Dora KC. 2014. Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology. Journal of Food Sciences Technology. 51(1): 1624.
Gallaher CM, Monion J, Jesslink R, Wise J, Gallaher DD. 2000. Cholesterol reduction by glucomanan and fat excretion in rat. The Journal of Nutrition. 130(11): 2753-2759. https://doi.org/10.1093/j n/130.11.2753
Gernat AG. 2001. The Effect of Using Different Levels of Shrimp Meal in Laying Hen Diets. Poultry Sciences. 80(5): 633-636. https://doi.org/10.1093/ ps/80.5.633
Hertrampf JW, Piedad-Pascual F. 2000. Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Dordrecht (NL): Kluwer Academic Publishers, 624 pp. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-94-011-4018-8
Imai S, Akita K, Tomotake M, Sawada H. 2006. Identification of Two Novel Pigment Precursors and a Reddish-Purple Pigment Involved in the Blue-Green Discoloration of Onion and Garlic. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 54(3): 843-847. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0519818
Kaya H, Macit M. 2012. Effect of inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) powder at different levels and copper into diets of hens on performance, egg quality traits and yolk cholesterol content. International Journal of Poultry Science. 11(2): 114-119. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2012.114.119
Kleiner IS, Dotti LB. 1962. Laboratory Instruction in Biochemistry. 6th ed. New York (US): The CV. Mosby Company.
Kurita K. 2006. Chitin and chitosan: functional biopolymers from marine crustaceans. Marine Biotechnology. 8(3): 203-226.
Lee E-J, Cho J-E, Kim J-H, Seung-Koo Lee S-K. 2007. Green pigment in crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves: Purification and partial characterization. Food Chemistry. 101(4): 1677-1686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.028
Lu Y, He Z, Shen X, Xu X, Fan J, Wu S, Zhang D. 2012. Cholesterol-lowering effect of allicin on hypercholesterolemic ICR mice. Oxidative Medicine Cellular Longevity. 2012: 1-6. https://doi.org/ 10.1155/2012/489690
Polat ES, Citil OB, Garip M. 2013. Fatty acid composition of yolk of nine poultry species kept in their natural environment. Animal Science Papers Reports. 31: 363-368.
Qureshi AA, Abuirmeileh N, Din ZZ, Elson CE, Burger WC. 1983. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids. 18: 343-348.
Reiner Z, Catapano AL, De Backer G, Graham I, Taskinen MR, Wiklund O, Agewall S, Alegria E, Chapman MJ, Durrington P, Erdine S, Halcox J, Hobbs R, Kjekshus J, Filardi PP, Riccardi G, Storey RF, Wood D. 2011. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: The task force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). European Heart Journal. 32(14): 1769-1818. https://doi.org/10.1093 /eurheartj/ehr158
Rismana E. 2003. Serat Kitosan Mengikat Lemak. Pusat Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Farmasi dan Medika. Jakarta (ID): Balai Pusat Penelitian Terpadu.
Safitri A. 2007. Komposisi kimia telur itik lokal pada berbagai level pemberian tepung daun beluntas. [Skripsi]. Bogor (ID): Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Sharp RG. 2013. A review of the applications of chitin and its derivatives in agriculture to modify plant-microbial interactions and improve crop yields. Agronomy. 3(4): 757-793. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/agronomy3040757
Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1993. Prinsip dan Prosedur Statistika. Edisi ke-3. Terjemahan: Bambang Sumantri. Jakarta (ID): PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Wallock-Richards D, Doherty CJ, Doherty L, Clarke DJ, Place M, Govan JRW, Campopiano DJ. 2014. Garlic revisited: Antimicrobial activity of allicin-containing garlic extracts against Burkholderia cepacia complex. PLoS ONE (Accelerating the Publication of Peer-Reviewed Science). 9(12): e112726. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0112726
Wang DD, Hu FB. 2017. Dietary fat and risk of cardiovascular disease: Recent controversies and advances. Annual Review of Nutrition. 37: 423-446. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064614
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).